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Lishomwa Ndhlovu
Title Dr
Faculty Rank Assistant Professor
Degree M.D., Ph.D
Institution University of Hawaii
Department Tropical Medicine
Clusters HIV/AIDS
Infectious and Immunological Diseases
John A. Burns School of Medicine
BSB 325C
651 Ilalo St
City Honolulu
State HI
Postal Code 96813
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Title Senior Investigator
Institution University of Hawaii
Department Department of Medicine
Division Hawaii Center for AIDS

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  Our research is dedicated to understanding how HIV affects the immune system and how this will inform on strategies to prevent, slow or eliminate HIV infection and optimize quality of life outcomes.

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  Research projects funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

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2018Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection5R01MH104141-05
2017Monocytes and Macrophages in HIV Cardiovascular Risk2U54MD007601-31
2017Effects of Human Galectin-9 on the CNS HIV Reservoir5R01MH112457-02
2017Reversal of Adaptive Immune Dysfunction in Shock and Kill HIV Cure Strategies5R21AI122393-02
2017Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection5R01MH104141-04
2017Exploring Cell-free Glycomic Interactions in HIV-associated Neurological Disorders1R21NS106970-01
2016Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection3R01MH104141-03S1
2016Reversal of Adaptive Immune Dysfunction in Shock and Kill HIV Cure Strategies1R21AI122393-01
2016Effects of Human Galectin-9 on the CNS HIV Reservoir1R01MH112457-01
2016Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection5R01MH104141-03
2015Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection5R01MH104141-02
2014Monocytes and HIV CNS Reservoirs in Super Acute HIV Infection1R01MH104141-01
2010Modulating Tim-3 to control HIV infection1R56AI083112-01A2
2010Modulating Tim-3 to control HIV infection7R56AI083112-02

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1. Hsu DC, Sunyakumthorn P, Wegner M, Schuetz A, Silsorn D, Estes JD, Deleage C, Tomusange K, Lakhashe SK, Ruprecht RM, Lombardini E, Im-Erbsin R, Kuncharin Y, Phuang-Ngern Y, Inthawong D, Chuenarom W, Burke R, Robb ML, Ndhlovu LC, Ananworanich J, Valcour V, O'Connell RJ, Spudich S, Michael NL, Vasan S. Central Nervous System Inflammation and Infection During Early, Non-Accelerated Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques. J Virol. 2018 Mar 21.
2. Nagashima H, Okuyama Y, Fujita T, Takeda T, Motomura Y, Moro K, Hidaka T, Omori K, Sakurai T, Machiyama T, Ndhlovu LC, Riccardi C, So T, Ishii N. GITR cosignal in ILC2s controls allergic lung inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 May; 141(5):1939-1943.e8.
3. Hsu DC, Wegner MD, Sunyakumthorn P, Silsorn D, Tayamun S, Inthawong D, Kuncharin Y, Im-Erbsin R, Ege C, O'Connell RJ, Michael NL, Ndhlovu LC, Vasan S. CD4+ Cell infiltration into subcutaneous adipose tissue is not indicative of productively infected cells during acute SHIV infection. J Med Primatol. 2017 Aug; 46(4):154-157.
4. SahBandar IN, Samonte G, Telan E, Siripong N, Belcaid M, Schanzenbach D, Leano S, Chagan-Yasutan H, Hattori T, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC. Ultra-Deep Sequencing Analysis on HIV Drug-Resistance-Associated Mutations Among HIV-Infected Individuals: First Report from the Philippines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Nov; 33(11):1099-1106.
5. Wirunsawanya K, Belyea L, Shikuma C, Watanabe RM, Kohorn L, Shiramizu B, Mitchell BI, Souza SA, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC, Chow D. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Predicts Negative Alterations in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Chronic HIV Infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Jul; 33(7):723-727.
6. Ginwala R, Caruso B, Khan ZK, Pattekar A, Chew GM, Corley MJ, Loonawat R, Jacobson S, Sreedhar S, Ndhlovu LC, Jain P. HTLV-1 Infection and Neuropathogenesis in the Context of Rag1-/-?c-/- (RAG1-Hu) and BLT Mice. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 Sep; 12(3):504-520.
7. Leal FE, Premeaux TA, Abdel-Mohsen M, Ndhlovu LC. Role of Natural Killer Cells in HIV-Associated Malignancies. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:315.
8. Gangcuangco LM, Kohorn LB, Chow DC, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Kallianpur KJ, Shikuma CM. High 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with unexpectedly high plasma inflammatory markers in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct; 95(43):e5270.
9. Corley MJ, Dye C, D'Antoni ML, Byron MM, Yo KL, Lum-Jones A, Nakamoto B, Valcour V, SahBandar I, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Maunakea AK. Comparative DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals an Immunoepigenetic Signature of HIV-related Cognitive Impairment. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 15; 6:33310.
10. Kallianpur KJ, Sakoda M, Gangcuangco LM, Ndhlovu LC, Umaki T, Chow D, Wongjittraporn S, Shikuma CM. Frailty Characteristics in Chronic HIV Patients are Markers of White Matter Atrophy Independently of Age and Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study. Open Med J. 2016; 3:138-152.
11. Sacha JB, Ndhlovu LC. Strategies to target non-T-cell HIV reservoirs. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2016 Jul; 11(4):376-82.
12. Abdel-Mohsen M, Chavez L, Tandon R, Chew GM, Deng X, Danesh A, Keating S, Lanteri M, Samuels ML, Hoh R, Sacha JB, Norris PJ, Niki T, Shikuma CM, Hirashima M, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Pillai SK. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6):e1005677.
13. Riangwiwat T, Kohorn LB, Chow DC, Souza SA, Ndhlovu LC, Wong JW, Gangcuangco LM, Shikuma CM. CD4/CD8 Ratio Predicts Peripheral Fat in HIV-Infected Population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 May 01; 72(1):e17-9.
14. Mitchell BI, Byron MM, Ng RC, Chow DC, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-ß1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153758.
15. Chow DC, Kagihara JM, Zhang G, Souza SA, Hodis HN, Li Y, Mitchell BI, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Kohorn LB, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM. Non-classical monocytes predict progression of carotid artery bifurcation intima-media thickness in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2016 05; 17(3):114-22.
16. Kallianpur KJ, Gerschenson M, Mitchell BI, LiButti DE, Umaki TM, Ndhlovu LC, Nakamoto BK, Chow DC, Shikuma CM. Oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with reduced volumes of hippocampus and subcortical gray matter in chronically HIV-infected patients. Mitochondrion. 2016 05; 28:8-15.
17. Chow D, Kohorn L, Souza S, Ndhlovu L, Ando A, Kallianpur KJ, Byron MM, Baumer Y, Keating S, Shikuma C. Atazanavir use and carotid intima media thickness progression in HIV: potential influence of bilirubin. AIDS. 2016 Feb 20; 30(4):672-4.
18. Zungsontiporn N, Tello RR, Zhang G, Mitchell BI, Budoff M, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Non-Classical Monocytes and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Correlate with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Adults on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149143.
19. Chew GM, Fujita T, Webb GM, Burwitz BJ, Wu HL, Reed JS, Hammond KB, Clayton KL, Ishii N, Abdel-Mohsen M, Liegler T, Mitchell BI, Hecht FM, Ostrowski M, Shikuma CM, Hansen SG, Maurer M, Korman AJ, Deeks SG, Sacha JB, Ndhlovu LC. TIGIT Marks Exhausted T Cells, Correlates with Disease Progression, and Serves as a Target for Immune Restoration in HIV and SIV Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005349.
20. Lamers SL, Rose R, Ndhlovu LC, Nolan DJ, Salemi M, Maidji E, Stoddart CA, McGrath MS. The meningeal lymphatic system: a route for HIV brain migration? J Neurovirol. 2016 06; 22(3):275-81.
21. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 11; 16(6):228-35.
22. Ndhlovu LC, D'Antoni ML, Ananworanich J, Byron MM, Chalermchai T, Sithinamsuwan P, Tipsuk S, Ho E, Slike BM, Schuetz A, Zhang G, Agsalda-Garcia M, Shiramizu B, Shikuma CM, Valcour V. Loss of CCR2 expressing non-classical monocytes are associated with cognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected Thais. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Nov 15; 288:25-33.
23. Clayton KL, Douglas-Vail MB, Nur-ur Rahman AK, Medcalf KE, Xie IY, Chew GM, Tandon R, Lanteri MC, Norris PJ, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Ostrowski MA. Soluble T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 is shed from CD8+ T cells by the sheddase ADAM10, is increased in plasma during untreated HIV infection, and correlates with HIV disease progression. J Virol. 2015 Apr; 89(7):3723-36.
24. Hoffmann PR, Panigada M, Soprana E, Terry F, Bandar IS, Napolitano A, Rose AH, Hoffmann FW, Ndhlovu LC, Belcaid M, Moise L, De Groot AS, Carbone M, Gaudino G, Matsui T, Siccardi A, Bertino P. Preclinical development of HIvax: Human survivin highly immunogenic vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(7):1585-95.
25. Munger AM, Chow DC, Playford MP, Parikh NI, Gangcuangco LM, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM, Mehta NN. Characterization of lipid composition and high-density lipoprotein function in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral regimens. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Feb; 31(2):221-8.
26. O-charoen P, Ndhlovu LC, Gangcuangco LM, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ng RC, Mitchell BI, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Albuminuria is associated with elevated acute phase reactants and proinflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Dec; 30(12):1185-91.
27. Fujita T, Burwitz BJ, Chew GM, Reed JS, Pathak R, Seger E, Clayton KL, Rini JM, Ostrowski MA, Ishii N, Kuroda MJ, Hansen SG, Sacha JB, Ndhlovu LC. Expansion of dysfunctional Tim-3-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells during simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus macaques. J Immunol. 2014 Dec 01; 193(11):5576-83.
28. Ndhlovu LC, Umaki T, Chew GM, Chow DC, Agsalda M, Kallianpur KJ, Paul R, Zhang G, Ho E, Hanks N, Nakamoto B, Shiramizu BT, Shikuma CM. Treatment intensification with maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) leads to declines in CD16-expressing monocytes in cART-suppressed chronic HIV-infected subjects and is associated with improvements in neurocognitive test performance: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disease (HAND). J Neurovirol. 2014 Dec; 20(6):571-82.
29. Tandon R, Chew GM, Byron MM, Borrow P, Niki T, Hirashima M, Barbour JD, Norris PJ, Lanteri MC, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC. Galectin-9 is rapidly released during acute HIV-1 infection and remains sustained at high levels despite viral suppression even in elite controllers. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Jul; 30(7):654-64.
30. Chagan-Yasutan H, Lacuesta TL, Ndhlovu LC, Oguma S, Leano PS, Telan EF, Kubo T, Morita K, Uede T, Dimaano EM, Hattori T. Elevated levels of full-length and thrombin-cleaved osteopontin during acute dengue virus infection are associated with coagulation abnormalities. Thromb Res. 2014 Aug; 134(2):449-54.
31. Lanteri MC, Diamond MS, Law JP, Chew GM, Wu S, Inglis HC, Wong D, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC. Increased frequency of Tim-3 expressing T cells is associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92134.
32. Shikuma CM, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Zhang G, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Seto TB, Parikh N, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Monocytes expand with immune dysregulation and is associated with insulin resistance in older individuals with chronic HIV. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e90330.
33. Shikuma CM, Gangcuangco LM, Killebrew DA, Libutti DE, Chow DC, Nakamoto BK, Liang CY, Milne CI, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD, Shiramizu BT, Gerschenson M. The role of HIV and monocytes/macrophages in adipose tissue biology. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Feb 01; 65(2):151-9.
34. Crawford TQ, Jalbert E, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Concomitant evaluation of PMA+ionomycin-induced kinase phosphorylation and cytokine production in T cell subsets by flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2014 Mar; 85(3):268-76.
35. Clayton KL, Haaland MS, Douglas-Vail MB, Mujib S, Chew GM, Ndhlovu LC, Ostrowski MA. T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing protein 3 is recruited to the immune synapse, disrupts stable synapse formation, and associates with receptor phosphatases. J Immunol. 2014 Jan 15; 192(2):782-91.
36. Barbour JD, Jalbert EC, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Heitman J, Nagamine L, Seto T, Ndhlovu LC, Nakamoto BK, Hodis HN, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM. Reduced CD14 expression on classical monocytes and vascular endothelial adhesion markers independently associate with carotid artery intima media thickness in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan; 232(1):52-8.
37. Chagan-Yasutan H, Ndhlovu LC, Lacuesta TL, Kubo T, Leano PS, Niki T, Oguma S, Morita K, Chew GM, Barbour JD, Telan EF, Hirashima M, Hattori T, Dimaano EM. Galectin-9 plasma levels reflect adverse hematological and immunological features in acute dengue virus infection. J Clin Virol. 2013 Dec; 58(4):635-40.
38. Crawford TQ, Hecht FM, Pilcher CD, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Activation associated ERK1/2 signaling impairments in CD8+ T cells co-localize with blunted polyclonal and HIV-1 specific effector functions in early untreated HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77412.
39. Jones RB, Song H, Xu Y, Garrison KE, Buzdin AA, Anwar N, Hunter DV, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, Martin E, Lee E, Kuciak M, Raposo RA, Bozorgzad A, Meiklejohn DA, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. LINE-1 retrotransposable element DNA accumulates in HIV-1-infected cells. J Virol. 2013 Dec; 87(24):13307-20.
40. Jalbert E, Crawford TQ, D'Antoni ML, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Nakamoto BK, Seto T, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. IL-1? enriched monocytes mount massive IL-6 responses to common inflammatory triggers among chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable anti-retroviral therapy at risk for cardiovascular disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75500.
41. Shikuma CM, Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Budoff M, Parikh N, Seto T, Gangcuangco LM, Ogata-Arakaki D, Chow D. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a levels predict the presence of coronary artery calcium in HIV-infected individuals independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Feb; 30(2):142-6.
42. Tongma C, Shikuma CM, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Umaki TM, Barbour JD, Ndhlovu L, Parikh NI, Chow DC. Albuminuria as a marker of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals receiving stable antiretroviral therapy. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013 Sep; 72(9 Suppl 4):34-8.
43. Batista MD, Tincati C, Milush JM, Ho EL, Ndhlovu LC, York VA, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Chang D, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Liao W, Nixon DF. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52144.
44. Leal FE, Ndhlovu LC, Hasenkrug AM, Bruno FR, Carvalho KI, Wynn-Williams H, Neto WK, Sanabani SS, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. Expansion in CD39? CD4? immunoregulatory t cells and rarity of Th17 cells in HTLV-1 infected patients is associated with neurological complications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(2):e2028.
45. Jalbert E, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Sequential staining improves detection of CCR2 and CX3CR1 on monocytes when simultaneously evaluating CCR5 by multicolor flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2013 Mar; 83(3):280-6.
46. Tandon R, Giret MT, Sengupta D, York VA, Wiznia AA, Rosenberg MG, Kallas EG, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF. Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected children. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45733.
47. Ndhlovu LC, Lopez-Vergès S, Barbour JD, Jones RB, Jha AR, Long BR, Schoeffler EC, Fujita T, Nixon DF, Lanier LL. Tim-3 marks human natural killer cell maturation and suppresses cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Blood. 2012 Apr 19; 119(16):3734-43.
48. Crawford TQ, Ndhlovu LC, Tan A, Carvidi A, Hecht FM, Sinclair E, Barbour JD. HIV-1 infection abrogates CD8+ T cell mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling responses. J Virol. 2011 Dec; 85(23):12343-50.
49. Tandon R, SenGupta D, Ndhlovu LC, Vieira RG, Jones RB, York VA, Vieira VA, Sharp ER, Wiznia AA, Ostrowski MA, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Identification of human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2011 Nov; 85(21):11526-31.
50. SenGupta D, Tandon R, Vieira RG, Ndhlovu LC, Lown-Hecht R, Ormsby CE, Loh L, Jones RB, Garrison KE, Martin JN, York VA, Spotts G, Reyes-Terán G, Ostrowski MA, Hecht FM, Deeks SG, Nixon DF. Strong human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses are associated with control of HIV-1 in chronic infection. J Virol. 2011 Jul; 85(14):6977-85.
51. Ndhlovu LC, Leal FE, Hasenkrug AM, Jha AR, Carvalho KI, Eccles-James IG, Bruno FR, Vieira RG, York VA, Chew GM, Jones RB, Tanaka Y, Neto WK, Sanabani SS, Ostrowski MA, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. HTLV-1 tax specific CD8+ T cells express low levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 infection: implications for progression to neurological complications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Apr 26; 5(4):e1030.
52. Snyder-Cappione JE, Tincati C, Eccles-James IG, Cappione AJ, Ndhlovu LC, Koth LL, Nixon DF. A comprehensive ex vivo functional analysis of human NKT cells reveals production of MIP1-a and MIP1-ß, a lack of IL-17, and a Th1-bias in males. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 03; 5(11):e15412.
53. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92.
54. Ndhlovu LC, Leal FE, Eccles-James IG, Jha AR, Lanteri M, Norris PJ, Barbour JD, Wachter DJ, Andersson J, Taskén K, Torheim EA, Aandahl EM, Kallas EG, Nixon DF. A novel human CD4+ T-cell inducer subset with potent immunostimulatory properties. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jan; 40(1):134-41.
55. Lanteri MC, O'Brien KM, Purtha WE, Cameron MJ, Lund JM, Owen RE, Heitman JW, Custer B, Hirschkorn DF, Tobler LH, Kiely N, Prince HE, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF, Kamel HT, Kelvin DJ, Busch MP, Rudensky AY, Diamond MS, Norris PJ. Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Nov; 119(11):3266-77.
56. Milush JM, Long BR, Snyder-Cappione JE, Cappione AJ, York VA, Ndhlovu LC, Lanier LL, Michaëlsson J, Nixon DF. Functionally distinct subsets of human NK cells and monocyte/DC-like cells identified by coexpression of CD56, CD7, and CD4. Blood. 2009 Nov 26; 114(23):4823-31.
57. Ndhlovu LC, Snyder-Cappione JE, Carvalho KI, Leal FE, Loo CP, Bruno FR, Jha AR, Devita D, Hasenkrug AM, Barbosa HM, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Murphy EL, Kallas EG. Lower numbers of circulating Natural Killer T (NK T) cells in individuals with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) associated neurological disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Dec; 158(3):294-9.
58. Melo KM, Carvalho KI, Bruno FR, Ndhlovu LC, Ballan WM, Nixon DF, Kallas EG, Costa-Carvalho BT. A decreased frequency of regulatory T cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. PLoS One. 2009 Jul 29; 4(7):e6269.
59. Torheim EA, Ndhlovu LC, Pettersen FO, Larsen TL, Jha AR, Torgersen KM, Kvale D, Nixon DF, Taskén K, Aandahl EM. Interleukin-10-secreting T cells define a suppressive subset within the HIV-1-specific T-cell population. Eur J Immunol. 2009 May; 39(5):1280-7.
60. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408.
61. Jones RB, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD, Sheth PM, Jha AR, Long BR, Wong JC, Satkunarajah M, Schweneker M, Chapman JM, Gyenes G, Vali B, Hyrcza MD, Yue FY, Kovacs C, Sassi A, Loutfy M, Halpenny R, Persad D, Spotts G, Hecht FM, Chun TW, McCune JM, Kaul R, Rini JM, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. Tim-3 expression defines a novel population of dysfunctional T cells with highly elevated frequencies in progressive HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2008 Nov 24; 205(12):2763-79.
62. Chen S, Ndhlovu LC, Takahashi T, Takeda K, Ikarashi Y, Kikuchi T, Murata K, Pandolfi PP, Riccardi C, Ono M, Sugamura K, Ishii N. Co-inhibitory roles for glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor in CD1d-dependent natural killer T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Aug; 38(8):2229-40.
63. Ndhlovu LC, Chapman JM, Jha AR, Snyder-Cappione JE, Pagán M, Leal FE, Boland BS, Norris PJ, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Suppression of HIV-1 plasma viral load below detection preserves IL-17 producing T cells in HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2008 May 11; 22(8):990-2.
64. Long BR, Ndhlovu LC, Oksenberg JR, Lanier LL, Hecht FM, Nixon DF, Barbour JD. Conferral of enhanced natural killer cell function by KIR3DS1 in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2008 May; 82(10):4785-92.
65. Ndhlovu LC, Loo CP, Spotts G, Nixon DF, Hecht FM. FOXP3 expressing CD127lo CD4+ T cells inversely correlate with CD38+ CD8+ T cell activation levels in primary HIV-1 infection. J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Feb; 83(2):254-62.
66. Garrison KE, Jones RB, Meiklejohn DA, Anwar N, Ndhlovu LC, Chapman JM, Erickson AL, Agrawal A, Spotts G, Hecht FM, Rakoff-Nahoum S, Lenz J, Ostrowski MA, Nixon DF. T cell responses to human endogenous retroviruses in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Nov; 3(11):e165.
67. Chen S, Ishii N, Ine S, Ikeda S, Fujimura T, Ndhlovu LC, Soroosh P, Tada K, Harigae H, Kameoka J, Kasai N, Sasaki T, Sugamura K. Regulatory T cell-like activity of Foxp3+ adult T cell leukemia cells. Int Immunol. 2006 Feb; 18(2):269-77.
68. Takeda I, Ine S, Killeen N, Ndhlovu LC, Murata K, Satomi S, Sugamura K, Ishii N. Distinct roles for the OX40-OX40 ligand interaction in regulatory and nonregulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 15; 172(6):3580-9.
69. Ndhlovu LC, Takeda I, Sugamura K, Ishii N. Expanding role of T-cell costimulators in regulatory T-cell function: recent advances in accessory molecules expressed on both regulatory and nonregulatory T cells. Crit Rev Immunol. 2004; 24(4):251-66.
70. Ishii N, Ndhlovu LC, Murata K, Sato T, Kamanaka M, Sugamura K. OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand interaction plays an adjuvant role during in vivo Th2 responses. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Sep; 33(9):2372-81.
71. Sato T, Ishii N, Murata K, Kikuchi K, Nakagawa S, Ndhlovu LC, Sugamura K. Consequences of OX40-OX40 ligand interactions in langerhans cell function: enhanced contact hypersensitivity responses in OX40L-transgenic mice. Eur J Immunol. 2002 Nov; 32(11):3326-35.
72. Murata K, Nose M, Ndhlovu LC, Sato T, Sugamura K, Ishii N. Constitutive OX40/OX40 ligand interaction induces autoimmune-like diseases. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 15; 169(8):4628-36.
73. Ndhlovu LC, Ishii N, Murata K, Sato T, Sugamura K. Critical involvement of OX40 ligand signals in the T cell priming events during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 01; 167(5):2991-9.
74. Murata K, Ishii N, Takano H, Miura S, Ndhlovu LC, Nose M, Noda T, Sugamura K. Impairment of antigen-presenting cell function in mice lacking expression of OX40 ligand. J Exp Med. 2000 Jan 17; 191(2):365-74.

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