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Carmen D. Zorrilla
Title Professor Ob-Gyn
Faculty Rank Professor
Degree M.D.
Institution University of Puerto Rico
Department Obstetrics and Gynecology
Clusters HIV/AIDS
Women's Health and Reproductive Biology
UPR-Medical Sciences Campus
Maternal Infant Studies Center (CEMI)
P.O. Box 365067
City San Juan
State PR
Postal Code 00936-5067
Telephone (787) 771-4740
Fax 787-771-4739
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  Area of Expertise: AIDS - VACCINE TRIALS., Zika
I’m a Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the UPR School of Medicine, certified by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American Academy of HIV Medicine. I have experience in both
Obstetrics and Gynecology and HIV related research that includes behavioral interventions and clinical trials with HIV infected and at risk populations, as well as with pregnant and non-pregnant women. I was part of the group of examiners for the American Oral Board of Ob-Gyn (ABOG) for 22 years and Past Residency Program Director for the UPR Ob-Gyn program. I established an infrastructure for the care of pregnant and non-pregnant women. The transmission rate of HIV infection among the more than 500 infants born to pregnant women living with HIV during the past 13 years at our clinic has been near zero. I’m currently the PI of the UPR Clinical Trials Unit (UPR-CTU), a merge of clinical trials units including the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (IMPAACT), the Adult Clinical Trials Unit (ACTG) and the UPR Mentoring Institute for HIV and Mental Health sponsored by NIMH. I have been a consultant for diverse national and international organizations including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Agency for Health Research Quality (AHRQ) and others, and a former member of the Office of Women’s Health Advisory Committee and the CDC/HRSA AIDS and STD Advisory Committee (CHAC). Some of the distinctions that I have received include: PR Senate resolution and Distinction (1990), UPR President’s Recognition (2000); listed in the 30 people to watch by POZ Magazine; the AMSA Raising Our Voices: Women Leaders in Medicine Award and a distinction from the PR HIV Treaters Association. We established the first group prenatal care program in PR (Centering Pregnancy) with funds from the Innovation Center of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). This is the first Spanish Centering Program outside of the Mainland US. One of the outcomes of the program has been the reduction in preterm births and low birth weight among infants born of women enrolled in group prenatal care at the University Hospital. Expanding the program in order to impact and improve the health of mothers and infants is also one of my professional goals. I’m part of the group of leaders who spearheaded the research response to the emerging Zika epidemic among pregnant women in PR. We also established a multidisciplinary clinic for pregnant women with Zika. I’m the site PI for the Zika in Infants and Pregnancy (ZIP Study) in San Juan. On September 20, 2017 Puerto Rico was impacted by Hurricane Maria (Category 4) which devastated the island and produced a collapse in the Island’s power system. Because of this, water, health services, education, economy, fuel distribution and essential services were interrupted. I had the opportunity to write a perspective article in the NEJM describing our initial experience.

Mentorship icon

Maintaining a well-trained cadre of minority researchers interested in HIV has been a challenge in Puerto Rico and elsewhere since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. They should be trained to respond to health disparities and to translate research to treatment and policy. During the past decade I have mentored junior investigators and with this experience we developed a mentoring model. In addition, we have impacted public health policies particularly in the treatment of pregnant women with HIV thus contributing to the elimination of mother to infant HIV transmission in PR.
In addition, we now propose the use of PrEP during pregnancy due to the risk of seroconversions.

I am available to mentor as:

Contact Information for Mentoring:
  • Carmen D. Zorrilla, MD
  • Professor
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • UPR School of Medicine
  • Principal Investigator: CEMI, MI-HMHR, IUPR-CTU, SJ ZIP
  • Maternal-Infant Studies Center (CEMI)
  • PO Box 365067 San Juan, PR 00936-5067
  • 787-753-5913, 771-4740, 766-0025 (O)
  • 787-771-4739 (F)

Programs, Membership, and Biomedical Research icon

Mentoring Mentor
RTRN Member - Steering Committee

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1. Haas DW, Cramer YS, Godfrey C, Rosenkranz SL, Aweeka F, Berzins B, Coombs R, Coughlin K, Moran LE, Gingrich D, Zorrilla CD, Baker P, Cohn SE, Scarsi KK. Pharmacogenetic interactions between antiretroviral drugs and vaginally administered hormonal contraceptives. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2020 Apr; 30(3):45-53.
2. Lebov JF, Arias JF, Balmaseda A, Britt W, Cordero JF, Galvão LA, Garces AL, Hambidge KM, Harris E, Ko A, Krebs N, Marques ETA, Martinez AM, McClure E, Miranda-Filho DB, Moreira MEL, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Ochoa TJ, Osorio JE, Scalabrin DMF, Schultz-Cherry S, Seage GR, Stolka K, Ugarte-Gil CA, Vega CMV, Welton M, Ximenes R, Zorrilla C. Correction to: International prospective observational cohort study of Zika in infants and pregnancy (ZIP study): study protocol. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Nov 19; 19(1):423.
3. Valdes V, Zorrilla CD, Gabard-Durnam L, Muler-Mendez N, Rahman ZI, Rivera D, Nelson CA. Cognitive Development of Infants Exposed to the Zika Virus in Puerto Rico. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Oct 02; 2(10):e1914061.
4. Scarsi KK, Cramer YS, Rosenkranz SL, Aweeka F, Berzins B, Coombs RW, Coughlin K, Moran LE, Zorrilla CD, Akelo V, Aziz M, Friedman RK, Gingrich D, Swaminathan S, Godfrey C, Cohn SE. Antiretroviral therapy and vaginally administered contraceptive hormones: a three-arm, pharmacokinetic study. Lancet HIV. 2019 09; 6(9):e601-e612.
5. Liu AY, Norwood A, Gundacker H, Carballo-Diéguez A, Johnson S, Patterson K, Bekker LG, Chariyalertsak S, Chitwarakorn A, Gonzales P, Holtz TH, Mayer KH, Zorrilla C, Buchbinder S, Piper JM, Lama JR, Cranston RD. Brief Report: Routine Use of Oral PrEP in a Phase 2 Rectal Microbicide Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel (MTN-017). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 08 15; 81(5):516-520.
6. Lebov JF, Arias JF, Balmaseda A, Britt W, Cordero JF, Galvão LA, Garces AL, Hambidge KM, Harris E, Ko A, Krebs N, Marques ETA, Martinez AM, McClure E, Miranda-Filho DB, Moreira MEL, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Ochoa TJ, Osorio JE, Scalabrin DMF, Schultz-Cherry S, Seage GR, Stolka K, Ugarte-Gil CA, Vega CMV, Welton M, Ximenes R, Zorrilla C. International prospective observational cohort study of Zika in infants and pregnancy (ZIP study): study protocol. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019 Aug 07; 19(1):282.
7. Crauwels HM, Osiyemi O, Zorrilla C, Bicer C, Brown K. Reduced exposure to darunavir and cobicistat in HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving a darunavir/cobicistat-based regimen. HIV Med. 2019 05; 20(5):337-343.
8. Rabionet SE, Zorrilla CD, Rivera-Viñas JI, Guerra-Sanchez Y. Pregnancy and Zika: The Quest for Quality Care and Reproductive Justice. P R Health Sci J. 2018 12; 37(Spec Issue):S45-S50.
9. Zorrilla CD, Rivera-Viñas JI, De La Vega-Pujols A, Garcia-Garcia I, Rabionet SE, Mosquera AM. The Zika Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Review and Implications for Research and Care of Women and Infants in Affected Areas. P R Health Sci J. 2018 12; 37(Spec Issue):S66-S72.
10. Gely-Rojas L, García-Fragoso L, Negrón J, Deynes D, García-García I, Zorrilla CD. Congenital Zika Syndrome in Puerto Rico, Beyond Microcephaly, A Multiorgan Approach. P R Health Sci J. 2018 12; 37(Spec Issue):S73-S76.
11. Figueroa-Cosme WI, Miranda-Díaz C, López-Córdova NM, Capriles JA, Velez CN, Santiago LE, Zorrilla C. The birds and the bees: do Puerto Rican mothers and daughters talk about sex? Arch Clin Med Case Rep. 2018; 2(6):190-205.
12. Shah SK, Kimmelman J, Lyerly AD, Lynch HF, Miller FG, Palacios R, Pardo CA, Zorrilla C. Response-Evaluating human trials: FDA''s role. Science. 2018 06 22; 360(6395):1308-1309.
13. Zorrilla CD, Báez FR, Colón KG, Ibarra J, García I, Mosquera AM. HIV seroconversion during pregnancy and the need for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2018; 10:57-61.
14. Shah SK, Kimmelman J, Lyerly AD, Lynch HF, Miller FG, Palacios R, Pardo CA, Zorrilla C. Bystander risk, social value, and ethics of human research. Science. 2018 Apr 13; 360(6385):158-159.
15. Osiyemi O, Yasin S, Zorrilla C, Bicer C, Hillewaert V, Brown K, Crauwels HM. Pharmacokinetics, Antiviral Activity, and Safety of Rilpivirine in Pregnant Women with HIV-1 Infection: Results of a Phase 3b, Multicenter, Open-Label Study. Infect Dis Ther. 2018 Mar; 7(1):147-159.
16. Zorrilla CD, García García I, García Fragoso L, De La Vega A. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Maternal, Fetal, and Neonatal Considerations. J Infect Dis. 2017 12 16; 216(suppl_10):S891-S896.
17. Carballo-Diéguez A, Giguere R, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Balán IC, Brown W, Rael C, Richardson BA, Piper JM, Bekker LG, Chariyalertsak S, Chitwarakorn A, Gonzales P, Holtz TH, Liu A, Mayer KH, Zorrilla CD, Lama JR, McGowan I, Cranston RD. Preference of Oral Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine Versus Rectal Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel Regimens for HIV Prevention Among Cisgender Men and Transgender Women Who Engage in Receptive Anal Intercourse with Men. AIDS Behav. 2017 Dec; 21(12):3336-3345.
18. Zorrilla CD. The View from Puerto Rico - Hurricane Maria and Its Aftermath. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 09; 377(19):1801-1803.
19. Carballo-Diéguez A, Balán IC, Brown W, Giguere R, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Marzinke MA, Hendrix CW, Piper JM, Richardson BA, Grossman C, Johnson S, Gomez K, Horn S, Kunjara Na Ayudhya RP, Patterson K, Jacobson C, Bekker LG, Chariyalertsak S, Chitwarakorn A, Gonzales P, Holtz TH, Liu A, Mayer KH, Zorrilla C, Lama J, McGowan I, Cranston RD. High levels of adherence to a rectal microbicide gel and to oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) achieved in MTN-017 among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0181607.
20. Ortiz AP, Tamayo V, Scorsone A, Soto-Salgado M, Febo I, Piovanetti P, Venegas-Ríos HL, Yamamura Y, Zorrilla C. Prevalence and correlates of cervical HPV infection in a clinic-based sample of HIV-positive Hispanic women. Papillomavirus Res. 2017 12; 4:39-44.
21. Cranston RD, Lama JR, Richardson BA, Carballo-Diéguez A, Kunjara Na Ayudhya RP, Liu K, Patterson KB, Leu CS, Galaska B, Jacobson CE, Parikh UM, Marzinke MA, Hendrix CW, Johnson S, Piper JM, Grossman C, Ho KS, Lucas J, Pickett J, Bekker LG, Chariyalertsak S, Chitwarakorn A, Gonzales P, Holtz TH, Liu AY, Mayer KH, Zorrilla C, Schwartz JL, Rooney J, McGowan I. MTN-017: A Rectal Phase 2 Extended Safety and Acceptability Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 03 01; 64(5):614-620.
22. Zorrilla CD, Sánchez I, Mosquera AM, Sierra D, Pérez LAL, Rabionet S, Rivera-Viñas J. Improved Infant Outcomes with Group Prenatal Care in Puerto Rico. Source J Obstet Gynaecol. 2017; 1(1).
23. Zorrilla CD, Mosquera AM, Rabionet S, Rivera-Viñas J. HIV and ZIKA in Pregnancy: Parallel Stories and New Challenges. Obstet Gynecol Int J. 2016; 5(6).
24. Ramgopal M, Osiyemi O, Zorrilla C, Crauwels HM, Ryan R, Brown K, Hillewaert V, Baugh B. Pharmacokinetics of Total and Unbound Etravirine in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 11 01; 73(3):268-274.
25. Colón-López V, Ortiz AP, Pérez N, Acevedo E, Tamayo V, Zorrilla CD. Measuring Knowledge of Cancer Screening and Prevention Strategies in HIV Healthcare Professionals. P R Health Sci J. 2016 09; 35(3):147-53.
26. Crauwels HM, Kakuda TN, Ryan B, Zorrilla C, Osiyemi OO, Yasin S, Brown K, Verboven P, Hillewaert V, Baugh B. Pharmacokinetics of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. HIV Med. 2016 10; 17(9):643-52.
27. Silva-Suárez G, Bastida E, Rabionet SE, Beck-Sagué C, Febo I, Zorrilla CD. "That''s True Love:" Lived Experiences of Puerto Rican Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth within Their Families'' Context. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Dec 22; 13(1):ijerph13010007.
28. Abdulhaqq SA, Zorrilla C, Kang G, Yin X, Tamayo V, Seaton KE, Joseph J, Garced S, Tomaras GD, Linn KA, Foulkes AS, Azzoni L, VerMilyea M, Coutifaris C, Kossenkov AV, Showe L, Kraiselburd EN, Li Q, Montaner LJ. HIV-1-negative female sex workers sustain high cervical IFN?, low immune activation, and low expression of HIV-1-required host genes. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 07; 9(4):1027-38.
29. Weinberg A, Muresan P, Richardson K, Fenton T, Dominguez T, Bloom A, Watts DH, Abzug MJ, Nachman SA, Levin MJ. Heterogeneity of T Cell Responses to Pandemic pH1N1 Monovalent Vaccine in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Nov; 31(11):1170-7.
30. Best BM, Burchett S, Li H, Stek A, Hu C, Wang J, Hawkins E, Byroads M, Watts DH, Smith E, Fletcher CV, Capparelli EV, Mirochnick M. Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir during pregnancy and postpartum. HIV Med. 2015 Sep; 16(8):502-11.
31. Deschamps MM, Zorrilla CD, Morgan CA, Donastorg Y, Metch B, Madenwald T, Joseph P, Severe K, Garced S, Perez M, Escamilia G, Swann E, Pape JW. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2013 Aug; 34(2):92-8.
32. Eley T, Huang SP, Conradie F, Zorrilla CD, Josipovic D, Botes M, Osiyemi O, Hardy H, Bertz R, McGrath D. Clinical and pharmacogenetic factors affecting neonatal bilirubinemia following atazanavir treatment of mothers during pregnancy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Oct; 29(10):1287-92.
33. Zorrilla CD, Wright R, Osiyemi OO, Yasin S, Baugh B, Brown K, Coate B, Verboven P, Mrus J, Falcon R, Kakuda TN. Total and unbound darunavir pharmacokinetics in pregnant women infected with HIV-1: results of a study of darunavir/ritonavir 600/100 mg administered twice daily. HIV Med. 2014 Jan; 15(1):50-6.
34. Weinberg A, Muresan P, Fenton T, Richardson K, Dominguez T, Bloom A, Petzold E, Anthony P, Cunningham CK, Spector SA, Nachman S, Siberry GK, Handelsman E, Flynn PM. High proportions of regulatory B and T cells are associated with decreased cellular responses to pH1N1 influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth (IMPAACT P1088). Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 May; 9(5):957-68.
35. Zorrilla CD, Rabionet SE, Mosquera AM, Ramírez de Arellano AB. Biomedical HIV prevention strategies: state of the art and implications for public health policy in the Caribbean. P R Health Sci J. 2012 Sep; 31(3):170-9.
36. Jiméez J, Morales M, Castro E, Puig M, Vélez CN, Santiago L, Zorrilla C. Levels of felt stigma among a group of people with HIV in Puerto Rico. P R Health Sci J. 2012 Jun; 31(2):64-70.
37. Duerr A, Huang Y, Buchbinder S, Coombs RW, Sanchez J, del Rio C, Casapia M, Santiago S, Gilbert P, Corey L, Robertson MN. Extended follow-up confirms early vaccine-enhanced risk of HIV acquisition and demonstrates waning effect over time among participants in a randomized trial of recombinant adenovirus HIV vaccine (Step Study). J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15; 206(2):258-66.
38. López-Cepero R, Lynch L, Zorrilla C, Leavitt K, de la Vega A. Antenatal screening for Down syndrome with special considerations in the Puerto Rican population. P R Health Sci J. 2011 Dec; 30(4):206-10.
39. Cohen CJ, Andrade-Villanueva J, Clotet B, Fourie J, Johnson MA, Ruxrungtham K, Wu H, Zorrilla C, Crauwels H, Rimsky LT, Vanveggel S, Boven K. Rilpivirine versus efavirenz with two background nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 (THRIVE): a phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2011 Jul 16; 378(9787):229-37.
40. Conradie F, Zorrilla C, Josipovic D, Botes M, Osiyemi O, Vandeloise E, Eley T, Child M, Bertz R, Hu W, Wirtz V, McGrath D. Safety and exposure of once-daily ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV Med. 2011 Oct; 12(9):570-9.
41. Jiménez J, Puig M, Sala AC, Ramos JC, Castro E, Morales M, Santiago L, Zorrilla C. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico. Qual Res Psychol. 2011; 8(1):26-39.
42. Jimenez JC, Puig M, Ramos JC, Morales M, Asencio G, Sala AC, Castro E, Velez Santori C, Santiago L, Zorrilla C. Measuring HIV felt stigma: a culturally adapted scale targeting PLWHA in Puerto Rico. AIDS Care. 2010 Nov; 22(11):1314-22.
43. Currier J, Averitt Bridge D, Hagins D, Zorrilla CD, Feinberg J, Ryan R, Falcon R, Tennenberg A, Mrus J, Squires K. Sex-based outcomes of darunavir-ritonavir therapy: a single-group trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 21; 153(6):349-57.
44. Zorrilla CD, Tamayo-Agrait V. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2009; 1:41-53.
45. Herrera-Becerra R, Zorrilla C, Canizal G, Schabes-Retchkiman PS, Liu HB, Tavera-Davila L, Rosano-Ortega G, Rendon L, Ascencio JA. Small bimetallic (Pt/Pd) particles by biosynthesis: transmission electron microscopy and quantum mechanical analysis. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009 Mar; 9(3):1935-41.
46. Rabionet SE, Santiago LE, Zorrilla CD. A multifaceted mentoring model for minority researchers to address HIV health disparities. Am J Public Health. 2009 Apr; 99 Suppl 1:S65-70.
47. Buchbinder SP, Mehrotra DV, Duerr A, Fitzgerald DW, Mogg R, Li D, Gilbert PB, Lama JR, Marmor M, Del Rio C, McElrath MJ, Casimiro DR, Gottesdiener KM, Chodakewitz JA, Corey L, Robertson MN. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 29; 372(9653):1881-1893.
48. McElrath MJ, De Rosa SC, Moodie Z, Dubey S, Kierstead L, Janes H, Defawe OD, Carter DK, Hural J, Akondy R, Buchbinder SP, Robertson MN, Mehrotra DV, Self SG, Corey L, Shiver JW, Casimiro DR. HIV-1 vaccine-induced immunity in the test-of-concept Step Study: a case-cohort analysis. Lancet. 2008 Nov 29; 372(9653):1894-1905.
49. Gulick RM, Lalezari J, Goodrich J, Clumeck N, DeJesus E, Horban A, Nadler J, Clotet B, Karlsson A, Wohlfeiler M, Montana JB, McHale M, Sullivan J, Ridgway C, Felstead S, Dunne MW, van der Ryst E, Mayer H. Maraviroc for previously treated patients with R5 HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 02; 359(14):1429-41.
50. Fätkenheuer G, Nelson M, Lazzarin A, Konourina I, Hoepelman AI, Lampiris H, Hirschel B, Tebas P, Raffi F, Trottier B, Bellos N, Saag M, Cooper DA, Westby M, Tawadrous M, Sullivan JF, Ridgway C, Dunne MW, Felstead S, Mayer H, van der Ryst E. Subgroup analyses of maraviroc in previously treated R5 HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 02; 359(14):1442-55.
51. Mellins CA, Chu C, Malee K, Allison S, Smith R, Harris L, Higgins A, Zorrilla C, Landesman S, Serchuck L, Larussa P. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment among pregnant and postpartum HIV-infected women. AIDS Care. 2008 Sep; 20(8):958-68.
52. Djomand G, Metch B, Zorrilla CD, Donastorg Y, Casapia M, Villafana T, Pape J, Figueroa P, Hansen M, Buchbinder S, Beyrer C. The HVTN protocol 903 vaccine preparedness study: lessons learned in preparation for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 01; 48(1):82-9.
53. Chen KT, Tuomala RE, Chu C, Huang ML, Watts DH, Zorrilla CD, Paul M, Hershow R, Larussa P. No association between antepartum serologic and genital tract evidence of herpes simplex virus-2 coinfection and perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Apr; 198(4):399.e1-5.
54. Torres R, Hilerio CM, Silva G, Ortiz NY, Zorrilla CD, Santiago LE. Concerns about HIV and sexually transmitted infection among low-risk and high-risk women, Puerto Rico. Ethn Dis. 2008; 18(2 Suppl 2):S2-238-41.
55. Zorrilla CD, Tamayo Agrait V, Febo I, Santiago LE, Díaz C, Salabarría I, Pérez E, Hillyer GV. Reduction in the perinatal HIV transmission: the experience at the Maternal Infant Studies Center and Gamma Projects at the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. P R Health Sci J. 2007 Dec; 26(4):329-35.
56. Wojna V, Skolasky RL, McArthur JC, Maldonado E, Hechavarria R, Mayo R, Selnes O, Ginebra T, de la Torre T, Garcia H, Kraiselburd E, Melendez-Guerrero LM, Zorrilla CD, Nath A. Spanish validation of the HIV dementia scale in women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007 Dec; 21(12):930-41.
57. Tremoulet AH, Capparelli EV, Patel P, Acosta EP, Luzuriaga K, Bryson Y, Wara D, Zorrilla C, Holland D, Mirochnick M. Population pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and -infected infants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Dec; 51(12):4297-302.
58. Zorrilla CD, Van Dyke R, Bardeguez A, Acosta EP, Smith B, Hughes MD, Huang S, Watts DH, Heckman B, Jiménez E, McSherry G, Mofenson L. Clinical response and tolerability to and safety of saquinavir with low-dose ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected mothers and their infants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Jun; 51(6):2208-10.
59. Zorrilla CD. HIV infection in women: perinatal issues and cervical cancer surveillance. Top HIV Med. 2007 Feb-Mar; 15(1):1-5.
60. Minkoff H, Shen X, Xian LS, Watts DH, Leighty R, Hershow R, Palefsky J, Tuomala R, Neu N, Zorrilla CD, Paul M, Strickler H. Relationship of pregnancy to human papillomavirus among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct; 108(4):953-60.
61. Wojna V, Skolasky RL, Hechavarría R, Mayo R, Selnes O, McArthur JC, Meléndez LM, Maldonado E, Zorrilla CD, García H, Kraiselburd E, Nath A. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment in a group of Hispanic women at risk for neurological impairment. J Neurovirol. 2006 Oct; 12(5):356-64.
62. Navas-Nacher EL, Read JS, Leighty RM, Tuomala RE, Zorrilla CD, Landesman S, Rosenblatt H, Hershow RC. Mode of delivery and postpartum HIV-1 disease progression: the Women and Infants Transmission Study. AIDS. 2006 Feb 14; 20(3):429-36.
63. Rosano-Ortega G, Schabes-Retchkiman P, Zorrilla C, Liu HB, Canizal G, Avila-Pérez P, Ascencio JA. Synthesis and characterization of Mn quantum dots by bioreduction with water hyacinth. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2006 Jan; 6(1):151-6.
64. Morris AB, Dobles AR, Cu-Uvin S, Zorrilla C, Anderson J, Harwell JI, Keller J, Garb J. Protease inhibitor use in 233 pregnancies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Sep 01; 40(1):30-3.
65. Tuomala RE, Watts DH, Li D, Vajaranant M, Pitt J, Hammill H, Landesman S, Zorrilla C, Thompson B. Improved obstetric outcomes and few maternal toxicities are associated with antiretroviral therapy, including highly active antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 01; 38(4):449-73.
66. Magder LS, Mofenson L, Paul ME, Zorrilla CD, Blattner WA, Tuomala RE, LaRussa P, Landesman S, Rich KC. Risk factors for in utero and intrapartum transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Jan 01; 38(1):87-95.
67. Hilerio CM, Martínez J, Zorrilla CD, Torres R. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and adherence among women living with HIV. Ethn Dis. 2005; 15(4 Suppl 5):S5-47-50.
68. Zorrilla CD, Santiago LE, Hilerio C, Estronza G, Falk T. An empowerment intervention for women living with HIV and its adaptation for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. Ethn Dis. 2005; 15(4 Suppl 5):S5-128-32.
69. Thorpe LE, Frederick M, Pitt J, Cheng I, Watts DH, Buschur S, Green K, Zorrilla C, Landesman SH, Hershow RC. Effect of hard-drug use on CD4 cell percentage, HIV RNA level, and progression to AIDS-defining class C events among HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Nov 01; 37(3):1423-30.
70. Charurat M, Blattner W, Hershow R, Buck A, Zorrilla CD, Watts DH, Paul M, Landesman S, Adeniyi-Jones S, Tuomala R. Changing trends in clinical AIDS presentations and survival among HIV-1-infected women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 Jul-Aug; 13(6):719-30.
71. Acosta EP, Bardeguez A, Zorrilla CD, Van Dyke R, Hughes MD, Huang S, Pompeo L, Stek AM, Pitt J, Watts DH, Smith E, Jiménez E, Mofenson L. Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir plus low-dose ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Feb; 48(2):430-6.
72. Zorrilla CD, Santiago LE, Knubson D, Liberatore K, Estronza G, Colón O, Acevedo M. Greater adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between pregnant versus non-pregnant women living with HIV. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003 Dec; 49(8):1187-92.
73. Minkoff H, Hershow R, Watts DH, Frederick M, Cheng I, Tuomala R, Pitt J, Zorrilla CD, Hammill H, Adeniyi-Jones SK, Thompson B. The relationship of pregnancy to human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug; 189(2):552-9.
74. Bardeguez AD, Shapiro DE, Mofenson LM, Coombs R, Frenkel LM, Fowler MG, Huang S, Sperling RS, Cunningham B, Gandia J, Maupin R, Zorrilla CD, Jones T, O''Sullivan MJ. Effect of cessation of zidovudine prophylaxis to reduce vertical transmission on maternal HIV disease progression and survival. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Feb 01; 32(2):170-81.
75. Tuomala RE, O''Driscoll PT, Bremer JW, Jennings C, Xu C, Read JS, Matzen E, Landay A, Zorrilla C, Blattner W, Charurat M, Anderson DJ. Cell-associated genital tract virus and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in antiretroviral-experienced women. J Infect Dis. 2003 Feb 01; 187(3):375-84.
76. Acosta EP, Zorrilla C, Van Dyke R, Bardeguez A, Smith E, Hughes M, Huang S, Pitt J, Watts H, Mofenson L. Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir-SGC in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV Clin Trials. 2001 Nov-Dec; 2(6):460-5.
77. Read JS, Tuomala R, Kpamegan E, Zorrilla C, Landesman S, Brown G, Vajaranant M, Hammill H, Thompson B. Mode of delivery and postpartum morbidity among HIV-infected women: the women and infants transmission study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Mar 01; 26(3):236-45.
78. Morris AB, Cu-Uvin S, Harwell JI, Garb J, Zorrilla C, Vajaranant M, Dobles AR, Jones TB, Carlan S, Allen DY. Multicenter review of protease inhibitors in 89 pregnancies. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 01; 25(4):306-11.
79. Zorrilla CD. Mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission: state of the art and implications for public policy. P R Health Sci J. 2000 Mar; 19(1):29-34.
80. Zorrilla CD. Antiretroviral combination therapy in HIV-1 infected women and men: are their responses different? Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2000 Mar-Apr; 45(2):195-9.
81. Welles SL, Pitt J, Colgrove R, McIntosh K, Chung PH, Colson A, Lockman S, Fowler MG, Hanson C, Landesman S, Moye J, Rich KC, Zorrilla C, Japour AJ. HIV-1 genotypic zidovudine drug resistance and the risk of maternal--infant transmission in the women and infants transmission study. The Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. AIDS. 2000 Feb 18; 14(3):263-71.
82. Zorrilla CD, Santiago LE. [Women and HIV/AIDS: barriers and new challenges]. P R Health Sci J. 1999 Dec; 18(4):397-400.
83. Garcia PM, Kalish LA, Pitt J, Minkoff H, Quinn TC, Burchett SK, Kornegay J, Jackson B, Moye J, Hanson C, Zorrilla C, Lew JF. Maternal levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and the risk of perinatal transmission. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1999 Aug 05; 341(6):394-402.
84. Burns DN, FitzGerald G, Semba R, Hershow R, Zorrilla C, Pitt J, Hammill H, Cooper ER, Fowler MG, Landesman S. Vitamin A deficiency and other nutritional indices during pregnancy in human immunodeficiency virus infection: prevalence, clinical correlates, and outcome. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Aug; 29(2):328-34.
85. Plaud-Valentin M, Delgado R, Garcia V, Zorrilla C, Gandia J, Meléndez-Guerrero LM. HIV infection of placental macrophages: effect on the secretion of HIV stimulatory cytokines. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999 Jun; 45(4):423-31.
86. Stratton P, Gupta P, Riester K, Fox H, Zorrilla C, Tuomala R, Eriksen N, Vajaranant M, Minkoff H, Fowler MG. Cervical dysplasia on cervicovaginal Papanicolaou smear among HIV-1-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. Women and Infants Transmission Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Mar 01; 20(3):300-7.
87. Zorrilla CD, Santiago LE. Redefining empowerment and sexual negotiation for women living with HIV. P R Health Sci J. 1998 Sep; 17(3):253-6.
88. Zorrilla CD. Obstetric factors and mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1997 Mar; 11(1):109-18.
89. Burns DN, Tuomala R, Chang BH, Hershow R, Minkoff H, Rodriguez E, Zorrilla C, Hammill H, Regan J. Vaginal colonization or infection with Candida albicans in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women during pregnancy and during the postpartum period. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Feb; 24(2):201-10.
90. Cooper ER, Nugent RP, Diaz C, Pitt J, Hanson C, Kalish LA, Mendez H, Zorrilla C, Hershow R, Moye J, Smeriglio V, Fowler MG. After AIDS clinical trial 076: the changing pattern of zidovudine use during pregnancy, and the subsequent reduction in the vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of infected women and their infants. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec; 174(6):1207-11.
91. Lavergne JA, Zorrilla C, del Llano AM. Decreased levels of TNF-beta in cultured PBLs from HIV+ patients occur concomitantly to increased apoptosis and impaired PWM-induced proliferation and dehydrogenase activity. Immunol Invest. 1996 Jul; 25(4):279-89.
92. Landesman SH, Kalish LA, Burns DN, Minkoff H, Fox HE, Zorrilla C, Garcia P, Fowler MG, Mofenson L, Tuomala R. Obstetrical factors and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to child. The Women and Infants Transmission Study. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 20; 334(25):1617-23.
93. del Llano AM, Zorrilla C, Lavergne JA. Multifunctional immunological monitoring of HIV positive patients: a novel staging system. P R Health Sci J. 1993 Dec; 12(4):277-81.
94. Zorrilla CD, Romaguera J, Díaz C. [Guidelines for the management of women with HIV infection]. P R Health Sci J. 1993 Apr; 12(1):55-61.
95. Romaguera J, Zorrilla C, de la Vega A, Fromm R, Wallach RC, Rodriguez-Mariani A, Adamsons K. Responsiveness of L-S ratio of the amniotic fluid to intra-amniotic administration of thyroxine. Role of fetal age. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1990; 69(2):119-22.
96. Sunshine A, Roure C, Olson N, Laska EM, Zorrilla C, Rivera J. Analgesic efficacy of two ibuprofen-codeine combinations for the treatment of postepisiotomy and postoperative pain. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 Oct; 42(4):374-80.

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