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Thomas Forsthuber
Title Professor
Faculty Rank
Degree Ph.D.
Institution University of Texas at San Antonio
Department Biology
Clusters Other
1 UTSA Cir
City San Antonio
State TX
Postal Code 78249
Telephone (210) 458-5760
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  Research Interests:

My laboratory focuses on the following lines of research:

The first line of research focuses on T cell-mediated immunopathology with particular emphasis on the modulation of the cytokine signature of autoantigen-specific T cells to prevent induction and/or progression of pathogenic T cell responses. The main experimental model that we are studying is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, as a model for MS). We are particularly interested in the effects of cytokine networks in these models. Part of our strategy to address these questions makes use of a “humanized” mouse model, these mice being transgenic for human MHC genes. We believe that the information gained in these models will provide us with the tools to advance our knowledge of human autoimmune diseases and provide a basis for new therapeutic concepts.

The second line of research centers on the development of new adjuvant formulations for human vaccines. We are in particular interested in pharmacological targeting of the signaling cascades, which determine the induction of type-1/type-2 T cell responses, as is required to develop vaccines and therapies of autoimmunity.

The third line of research focuses on basic T cell biology questions. Specifically, we are investigating the role of MAP kinases in T cell development and function. Moreover, we are studying the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in T cell development and function and in autoimmunity. Finally, we are investigating neonatal T cell immunity.

The experimental in vivo and in vitro immunologic and molecular biologic tests systems and animal models to pursue these questions are established in my laboratory. We are at the forefront of detecting T cell responses at the single cell level by ELISPOT.

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  Research projects funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

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2013Oh Snap!1H79SP020175-01

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1. Narayan RN, Forsthuber T, Stüve O. Emerging drugs for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2018 Apr 24; 1-14.
2. Forsthuber TG, Cimbora DM, Ratchford JN, Katz E, Stüve O. B cell-based therapies in CNS autoimmunity: differentiating CD19 and CD20 as therapeutic targets. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2018; 11:1756286418761697.
3. Shoemaker RH, Forsthuber TG. Targeting "Retired Antigens" for Cancer Immunoprevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 Nov; 10(11):607-608.
4. Dubey D, Forsthuber T, Flanagan EP, Pittock SJ, Stüve O. B-cell-targeted therapies in relapsing forms of MS. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2017 Nov; 4(6):e405.
5. Raphael I, Webb J, Gomez-Rivera F, Chase Huizar CA, Gupta R, Arulanandam BP, Wang Y, Haskins WE, Forsthuber TG. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:812.
6. Salekin S, Bari MG, Raphael I, Forsthuber TG, Zhang JM. Early response index: a statistic to discover potential early stage disease biomarkers. BMC Bioinformatics. 2017 Jun 23; 18(1):313.
7. Bloom J, Metz C, Nalawade S, Casabar J, Cheng KF, He M, Sherry B, Coleman T, Forsthuber T, Al-Abed Y. Identification of Iguratimod as an Inhibitor of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) with Steroid-sparing Potential. J Biol Chem. 2016 Dec 16; 291(51):26502-26514.
8. Forsthuber TG, Stuve O. Targeting "bad" B cells in multiple sclerosis: Could laquinimod be part of the armamentarium? Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2016 Oct; 3(5):e283.
9. Cunningham AL, Guentzel MN, Yu JJ, Hung CY, Forsthuber TG, Navara CS, Yagita H, Williams IR, Klose KE, Eaves-Pyles TD, Arulanandam BP. M-Cells Contribute to the Entry of an Oral Vaccine but Are Not Essential for the Subsequent Induction of Protective Immunity against Francisella tularensis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153402.
10. Ketter P, Yu JJ, Cap AP, Forsthuber T, Arulanandam B. Pentraxin 3: an immune modulator of infection and useful marker for disease severity assessment in sepsis. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016; 12(5):501-7.
11. Ji N, Forsthuber TG. ELISPOT Techniques. Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1304:63-71.
12. Sosa RA, Murphey C, Robinson RR, Forsthuber TG. IFN-? ameliorates autoimmune encephalomyelitis by limiting myelin lipid peroxidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Sep 08; 112(36):E5038-47.
13. Ji N, Kovalovsky A, Fingerle-Rowson G, Guentzel MN, Forsthuber TG. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes resistance to glucocorticoid treatment in EAE. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2015 Oct; 2(5):e139.
14. Latham LB, Lee MJ, Lincoln JA, Ji N, Forsthuber TG, Lindsey JW. Antivirus immune activity in multiple sclerosis correlates with MRI activity. Acta Neurol Scand. 2016 Jan; 133(1):17-24.
15. Forsthuber TG, Radstake TR. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 10-year anniversary issue. Foreword. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan; 11(1):1-3.
16. Raphael I, Webb J, Stuve O, Haskins W, Forsthuber T. Body fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: how far we have come and how they could affect the clinic now and in the future. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan; 11(1):69-91.
17. Raphael I, Nalawade S, Eagar TN, Forsthuber TG. T cell subsets and their signature cytokines in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Cytokine. 2015 Jul; 74(1):5-17.
18. Raphael I, Mahesula S, Purkar A, Black D, Catala A, Gelfond JA, Forsthuber TG, Haskins WE. Microwave & magnetic (M2) proteomics reveals CNS-specific protein expression waves that precede clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep 03; 4:6210.
19. Varrin-Doyer M, Shetty A, Spencer CM, Schulze-Topphoff U, Weber MS, Bernard CC, Forsthuber T, Cree BA, Slavin AJ, Zamvil SS. MOG transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains contain highly stimulatory T-cell epitopes in MS. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2014 Aug; 1(2):e20.
20. Shetty A, Gupta SG, Varrin-Doyer M, Weber MS, Prod'homme T, Molnarfi N, Ji N, Nelson PA, Patarroyo JC, Schulze-Topphoff U, Fogal SE, Forsthuber T, Sobel RA, Bernard CC, Slavin AJ, Zamvil SS. Immunodominant T-cell epitopes of MOG reside in its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in EAE. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2014 Aug; 1(2):e22.
21. Stüve O, Warnke C, Deason K, Stangel M, Kieseier BC, Hartung HP, von Büdingen HC, Centonze D, Forsthuber TG, Knappertz V. CD19 as a molecular target in CNS autoimmunity. Acta Neuropathol. 2014 Aug; 128(2):177-90.
22. Sosa RA, Murphey C, Ji N, Cardona AE, Forsthuber TG. The kinetics of myelin antigen uptake by myeloid cells in the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2013 Dec 15; 191(12):5848-57.
23. Ji N, Somanaboeina A, Dixit A, Kawamura K, Hayward NJ, Self C, Olson GL, Forsthuber TG. Small molecule inhibitor of antigen binding and presentation by HLA-DR2b as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2013 Nov 15; 191(10):5074-84.
24. Li W, Murthy AK, Lanka GK, Chetty SL, Yu JJ, Chambers JP, Zhong G, Forsthuber TG, Guentzel MN, Arulanandam BP. A T cell epitope-based vaccine protects against chlamydial infection in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Vaccine. 2013 Nov 19; 31(48):5722-8.
25. Garcia JA, Pino PA, Mizutani M, Cardona SM, Charo IF, Ransohoff RM, Forsthuber TG, Cardona AE. Regulation of adaptive immunity by the fractalkine receptor during autoimmune inflammation. J Immunol. 2013 Aug 01; 191(3):1063-72.
26. Raghunathan R, Mahesula S, Kancharla K, Janardhanan P, Jadhav YL, Nadeau R, Villa GP, Cook RL, Witt CM, Gelfond JA, Forsthuber TG, Haskins WE. Anti-CRLF2 Antibody-Armored Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Childhood B-ALL. Part Part Syst Charact. 2013 Apr; 30(4):355-364.
27. Trivedi NH, Guentzel MN, Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Forsthuber TG, Arulanandam BP. Mast cells: multitalented facilitators of protection against bacterial pathogens. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013 Feb; 9(2):129-38.
28. Mahesula S, Raphael I, Raghunathan R, Kalsaria K, Kotagiri V, Purkar AB, Anjanappa M, Shah D, Pericherla V, Jadhav YL, Gelfond JA, Forsthuber TG, Haskins WE. Immunoenrichment microwave and magnetic proteomics for quantifying CD47 in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis. Electrophoresis. 2012 Dec; 33(24):3820-9.
29. Raphael I, Mahesula S, Kalsaria K, Kotagiri V, Purkar AB, Anjanappa M, Shah D, Pericherla V, Jadhav YL, Raghunathan R, Vaynberg M, Noriega D, Grimaldo NH, Wenk C, Gelfond JA, Forsthuber TG, Haskins WE. Microwave and magnetic (M(2) ) proteomics of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis. Electrophoresis. 2012 Dec; 33(24):3810-9.
30. Arellano B, Hussain R, Zacharias T, Yoon J, David C, Zein S, Steinman L, Forsthuber T, Greenberg BM, Lambracht-Washington D, Ritchie AM, Bennett JL, Stüve O. Human aquaporin 4281-300 is the immunodominant linear determinant in the context of HLA-DRB1*03:01: relevance for diagnosing and monitoring patients with neuromyelitis optica. Arch Neurol. 2012 Sep; 69(9):1125-31.
31. Raphael I, Forsthuber TG. Stability of T-cell lineages in autoimmune diseases. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012 May; 8(4):299-301.
32. Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Navara CS, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Chambers JP, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cell TLR2 signaling is crucial for effective killing of Francisella tularensis. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 01; 188(11):5604-11.
33. Sosa RA, Forsthuber TG. The critical role of antigen-presentation-induced cytokine crosstalk in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011 Oct; 31(10):753-68.
34. Thathiah P, Sanapala S, Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Forsthuber TG, Chambers JP, Arulanandam BP. Non-FceR bearing mast cells secrete sufficient interleukin-4 to control Francisella tularensis replication within macrophages. Cytokine. 2011 Aug; 55(2):211-20.
35. Murthy AK, Li W, Chaganty BK, Kamalakaran S, Guentzel MN, Seshu J, Forsthuber TG, Zhong G, Arulanandam BP. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection. Infect Immun. 2011 Jul; 79(7):2928-35.
36. Ji N, Sosa RA, Forsthuber TG. More than just a T-box: the role of T-bet as a possible biomarker and therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases. Immunotherapy. 2011 Mar; 3(3):435-41.
37. Ji N, Rao N, Guentzel NM, Arulanandam BP, Forsthuber TG. Anaphylaxis and mortality induced by treatment of mice with anti-VLA-4 antibody and pertussis toxin. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 01; 186(5):2750-6.
38. Cantor JR, Yoo TH, Dixit A, Iverson BL, Forsthuber TG, Georgiou G. Therapeutic enzyme deimmunization by combinatorial T-cell epitope removal using neutral drift. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 25; 108(4):1272-7.
39. Murphey C, Chang S, Zhang X, Arulanandam B, Forsthuber TG. Induction of polyclonal CD8+ T cell activation and effector function by Pertussis toxin. Cell Immunol. 2011; 267(1):50-5.
40. Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Chambers JP, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cell/IL-4 control of Francisella tularensis replication and host cell death is associated with increased ATP production and phagosomal acidification. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 Mar; 4(2):217-26.
41. Li W, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Forsthuber TG, Seshu J, Zhong G, Arulanandam BP. Immunization with a combination of integral chlamydial antigens and a defined secreted protein induces robust immunity against genital chlamydial challenge. Infect Immun. 2010 Sep; 78(9):3942-9.
42. Jupelli M, Selby DM, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Forsthuber TG, Zhong G, Murthy AK, Arulanandam BP. The contribution of interleukin-12/interferon-gamma axis in protection against neonatal pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010 Jun; 30(6):407-15.
43. Hofstetter HH, Forsthuber TG. Kinetics of IL-17- and interferon-gamma-producing PLPp-specific CD4 T cells in EAE induced by coinjection of PLPp/IFA with pertussis toxin in SJL mice. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jun 07; 476(3):150-5.
44. Yu JJ, Goluguri T, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Murthy AK, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Arulanandam BP. Francisella tularensis T-cell antigen identification using humanized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Feb; 17(2):215-22.
45. Smirnova IS, Chang S, Forsthuber TG. Prosurvival and proapoptotic functions of ERK1/2 activation in murine thymocytes in vitro. Cell Immunol. 2010; 261(1):29-36.
46. Forsthuber TG, Muraro P. Is there a place for 'immuno' in the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis? Immunotherapy. 2009 May; 1(3):329-31.
47. Kawamura K, McLaughlin KA, Weissert R, Forsthuber TG. Myelin-reactive type B T cells and T cells specific for low-affinity MHC-binding myelin peptides escape tolerance in HLA-DR transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 01; 181(5):3202-11.
48. Ketavarapu JM, Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Cong Y, Murthy AK, Forsthuber TG, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cells inhibit intramacrophage Francisella tularensis replication via contact and secreted products including IL-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 08; 105(27):9313-8.
49. Murphey CL, Forsthuber TG. Trends in HLA antibody screening and identification and their role in transplantation. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2008 May; 4(3):391-9.
50. Li W, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Seshu J, Forsthuber TG, Zhong G, Arulanandam BP. Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produce sufficient IFN-gamma to mediate robust protective immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum infection. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 01; 180(5):3375-82.
51. Jane-wit D, Altuntas CZ, Monti J, Johnson JM, Forsthuber TG, Tuohy VK. Sex-defined T-cell responses to cardiac self determine differential outcomes of murine dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Pathol. 2008 Jan; 172(1):11-21.
52. Hofstetter HH, Grau C, Buttmann M, Forsthuber TG, Gaupp S, Toyka KV, Gold R. The PLPp-specific T-cell population promoted by pertussis toxin is characterized by high frequencies of IL-17-producing cells. Cytokine. 2007 Oct; 40(1):35-43.
53. Denkinger CM, Denkinger MD, Forsthuber TG. Pertussis toxin-induced cytokine differentiation and clonal expansion of T cells is mediated predominantly via costimulation. Cell Immunol. 2007 Mar; 246(1):46-54.
54. Hofstetter HH, Kovalovsky A, Shive CL, Lehmann PV, Forsthuber TG. Neonatal induction of myelin-specific Th1/Th17 immunity does not result in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and can protect against the disease in adulthood. J Neuroimmunol. 2007 Jul; 187(1-2):20-30.
55. Forsthuber TG, Ji N. Quo vadis Th1 and Th2 cells in autoimmunity and infectious diseases: Th17 cells, the new kid on the block. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2007 May; 3(3):251-4.
56. Murthy AK, Cong Y, Murphey C, Guentzel MN, Forsthuber TG, Zhong G, Arulanandam BP. Chlamydial protease-like activity factor induces protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection in transgenic mice that express the human HLA-DR4 allele. Infect Immun. 2006 Dec; 74(12):6722-9.
57. Macaubas C, Wahlstrom J, Galvão da Silva AP, Forsthuber TG, Sønderstrup G, Kwok WW, DeKruyff RH, Umetsu DT. Allergen-specific MHC class II tetramer+ cells are detectable in allergic, but not in nonallergic, individuals. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):5069-77.
58. Kort JJ, Kawamura K, Fugger L, Weissert R, Forsthuber TG. Efficient presentation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptides but not protein by astrocytes from HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr; 173(1-2):23-34.
59. Hofstetter HH, Karulin AY, Forsthuber TG, Ott PA, Tary-Lehmann M, Lehmann PV. The cytokine signature of MOG-specific CD4 cells in the EAE of C57BL/6 mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Dec 30; 170(1-2):105-14.
60. Nekrasova T, Shive C, Gao Y, Kawamura K, Guardia R, Landreth G, Forsthuber TG. ERK1-deficient mice show normal T cell effector function and are highly susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2005 Aug 15; 175(4):2374-80.
61. Hofstetter HH, Targoni OS, Karulin AY, Forsthuber TG, Tary-Lehmann M, Lehmann PV. Does the frequency and avidity spectrum of the neuroantigen-specific T cells in the blood mirror the autoimmune process in the central nervous system of mice undergoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis? J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):4598-605.
62. Denkinger CM, Metz C, Fingerle-Rowson G, Denkinger MD, Forsthuber T. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its role in autoimmune diseases. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2004 Nov-Dec; 52(6):389-400.
63. Klehmet J, Shive C, Guardia-Wolff R, Petersen I, Spack EG, Boehm BO, Weissert R, Forsthuber TG. T cell epitope spreading to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Clin Immunol. 2004 Apr; 111(1):53-60.
64. Denkinger M, Shive CL, Pantenburg B, Forsthuber TG. Suramin has adjuvant properties and promotes expansion of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Jan; 4(1):15-24.
65. Fingerle-Rowson G, Petrenko O, Metz CN, Forsthuber TG, Mitchell R, Huss R, Moll U, Müller W, Bucala R. The p53-dependent effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor revealed by gene targeting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 05; 100(16):9354-9.
66. Denkinger CM, Denkinger M, Kort JJ, Metz C, Forsthuber TG. In vivo blockade of macrophage migration inhibitory factor ameliorates acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by impairing the homing of encephalitogenic T cells to the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 01; 170(3):1274-82.
67. Hofstetter HH, Sewell DL, Liu F, Sandor M, Forsthuber T, Lehmann PV, Fabry Z. Autoreactive T cells promote post-traumatic healing in the central nervous system. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Jan; 134(1-2):25-34.
68. Hofstetter HH, Shive CL, Forsthuber TG. Pertussis toxin modulates the immune response to neuroantigens injected in incomplete Freund's adjuvant: induction of Th1 cells and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the presence of high frequencies of Th2 cells. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 01; 169(1):117-25.
69. Weissert R, Kuhle J, de Graaf KL, Wienhold W, Herrmann MM, Müller C, Forsthuber TG, Wiesmüller KH, Melms A. High immunogenicity of intracellular myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein epitopes. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 01; 169(1):548-56.
70. Ebhardt MB, Shive CL, Guardia R, Gapin L, Boehm BO, Forsthuber TG. Immunological adjuvants efficiently induce antigen-specific T cell responses in old mice: implications for vaccine adjuvant development in aged individuals. Cell Immunol. 2002 Jan; 215(1):87-97.
71. Forsthuber TG, Shive CL, Wienhold W, de Graaf K, Spack EG, Sublett R, Melms A, Kort J, Racke MK, Weissert R. T cell epitopes of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein identified in HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) transgenic mice are encephalitogenic and are presented by human B cells. J Immunol. 2001 Dec 15; 167(12):7119-25.
72. Targoni OS, Baus J, Hofstetter HH, Hesse MD, Karulin AY, Boehm BO, Forsthuber TG, Lehmann PV. Frequencies of neuroantigen-specific T cells in the central nervous system versus the immune periphery during the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2001 Apr 01; 166(7):4757-64.
73. Benson JM, Campbell KA, Guan Z, Gienapp IE, Stuckman SS, Forsthuber T, Whitacre CC. T-cell activation and receptor downmodulation precede deletion induced by mucosally administered antigen. J Clin Invest. 2000 Oct; 106(8):1031-8.
74. Shive CL, Hofstetter H, Arredondo L, Shaw C, Forsthuber TG. The enhanced antigen-specific production of cytokines induced by pertussis toxin is due to clonal expansion of T cells and not to altered effector functions of long-term memory cells. Eur J Immunol. 2000 Aug; 30(8):2422-31.
75. Lovett-Racke AE, Smith ME, Arredondo LR, Bittner PS, Ratts RB, Shive CL, Forsthuber TG, Racke MK. Developmentally regulated gene expression of Th2 cytokines in the brain. Brain Res. 2000 Jul 07; 870(1-2):27-35.
76. Heeger PS, Forsthuber T, Shive C, Biekert E, Genain C, Hofstetter HH, Karulin A, Lehmann PV. Revisiting tolerance induced by autoantigen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. J Immunol. 2000 Jun 01; 164(11):5771-81.
77. Yip HC, Karulin AY, Tary-Lehmann M, Hesse MD, Radeke H, Heeger PS, Trezza RP, Heinzel FP, Forsthuber T, Lehmann PV. Adjuvant-guided type-1 and type-2 immunity: infectious/noninfectious dichotomy defines the class of response. J Immunol. 1999 Apr 01; 162(7):3942-9.
78. Lehmann PV, Targoni OS, Forsthuber TG. Shifting T-cell activation thresholds in autoimmunity and determinant spreading. Immunol Rev. 1998 Aug; 164:53-61.
79. Gross DM, Forsthuber T, Tary-Lehmann M, Etling C, Ito K, Nagy ZA, Field JA, Steere AC, Huber BT. Identification of LFA-1 as a candidate autoantigen in treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Science. 1998 Jul 31; 281(5377):703-6.
80. Tian J, Atkinson MA, Clare-Salzler M, Herschenfeld A, Forsthuber T, Lehmann PV, Kaufman DL. Nasal administration of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) peptides induces Th2 responses and prevents murine insulin-dependent diabetes. J Exp Med. 1996 Apr 01; 183(4):1561-7.
81. Forsthuber T, Yip HC, Lehmann PV. Induction of TH1 and TH2 immunity in neonatal mice. Science. 1996 Mar 22; 271(5256):1728-30.
82. Kaufman DL, Clare-Salzler M, Tian J, Forsthuber T, Ting GS, Robinson P, Atkinson MA, Sercarz EE, Tobin AJ, Lehmann PV. Spontaneous loss of T-cell tolerance to glutamic acid decarboxylase in murine insulin-dependent diabetes. Nature. 1993 Nov 04; 366(6450):69-72.
83. Lehmann PV, Sercarz EE, Forsthuber T, Dayan CM, Gammon G. Determinant spreading and the dynamics of the autoimmune T-cell repertoire. Immunol Today. 1993 May; 14(5):203-8.
84. Lehmann PV, Forsthuber T, Miller A, Sercarz EE. Spreading of T-cell autoimmunity to cryptic determinants of an autoantigen. Nature. 1992 Jul 09; 358(6382):155-7.
85. Oster W, Forsthuber T, Hennekeuser HH, Gamm H, Lindemann A, Schmitz G, Fuhr HG, Hinterberger R, Kreiter H, Thoenes W, et al. MACOP-B chemotherapy for the treatment of high grade and intermediate grade non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Blut. 1990 Jan; 60(1):23-7.
86. Schmidt H, Forsthuber T, Bühring HJ, Müller CA. Differential expression of the HLA-B7 and the HLA-A2 gene in transfected mouse L(tk-) cells after stimulation by mouse interferon. Immunobiology. 1987 Jan; 174(1):51-66.

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