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Caroline Appleyard

TitleDirector, PHSU-NIGMS RISE Training Program; Co-Leader, Training/Career Development Core, U54 PSM-MCC Partnership
Faculty RankProfessor
InstitutionPonce Health Sciences University
DepartmentBasic Sciences
AddressP.O. Box 7005
Ponce PR 00717
Phone7878402575 x2165
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    1995Young Investigator Award, FASEB
    2000American Motility Society Travel Award
    2002 - 2009FASEB/MARC Travel Award, FASEB
    2007Minority-serving Institution Faculty Scholar Cancer Research Award, AACR
    2010MInority-serving Institution Faculty Scholar Cancer Research Award, AACR
    2013 - 2014FASEB/MARC Travel Award, FASEB
    2014Merck Health Innovation Award - Investigation, Merck
    2016Fellow, American Physiological Society
    2017A. Clifford Berger Underrepresented Minority Mentorship Award, American Physiological Society

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Caroline B. Appleyard, PhD is a Professor in the Department of Basic Sciences (Physiology Division) and Internal Medicine at Ponce Health Sciences University (PHSU) - Ponce Research Institute. She obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Pharmacology from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland before completing her doctoral studies at the University of Southampton, England. She then gained extensive experience in the field of gastrointestinal inflammation, through her post-doctoral studies at the University of Calgary, Canada and at the University of South Dakota. Her current studies center on the interactions between inflammatory mediators, microflora, and behavior, in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of inflammatory conditions of the intestine. She has developed several animal models to study these conditions and help elucidate the neuro-immune mechanisms involved with a view to developing complementary therapies. Dr. Appleyard strongly believes that mentoring and exposure to training, and learning from others experiences will help to ensure that women and minorities stay in science. At PHSU she is heavily involved in scientific training in her capacity as Program Director of the NIGMS RISE graduate training program, and co-leader for the Research Education Core of the U54 PSM-Moffitt Cancer Center partnership, and this extends to her involvement in mentoring programs at the national level. Most recently she was recognized at the national level becoming the Inaugural recipient of the A. Clifford Barger Underrepresented Minority Mentorship Award from the American Physiological Society. She regularly reviews for academic journals and funding agencies and has coordinated several scientific workshops and meetings. She is an active member of several professional societies including the American Physiological Society (currently Chair of the Career Opportunities in Physiology Committee; Past-President of the Puerto Rico Physiological Society), the American Gastroenterology Association, the American Association for Cancer Research and the Association for Women In Science.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    5R25GM082406-13     (APPLEYARD, CAROLINE B)Jul 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R15AT006373     (APPLEYARD, CAROLINE B)Aug 1, 2011 - Jul 31, 2014
    Stress: Potential Impact on an Animal Model of Endometriosis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R15AT009915     (APPLEYARD, CAROLINE B)Mar 1, 2018 - Feb 28, 2021
    Physical activity as a therapeutic intervention in endometriosis
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Nieves-V?zquez CI, Detr?s-Marqu?z AC, Torres-Rever?n A, Appleyard CB, Llorens-De Jes?s AP, Resto IN, L?pez-Rodr?guez V, Ramos-Echevarr?a PM, Castro EM, Flores I. Feasibility and acceptability of an adapted environmental enrichment intervention for endometriosis: A pilot study. Front Glob Womens Health. 2022; 3:1058559. PMID: 36683601.
    2. Chompre G, Sambolin L, Cruz ML, Sanchez R, Rodriguez Y, Rodr?guez-Santiago RE, Yamamura Y, Appleyard CB. A one month high fat diet disrupts the gut microbiome and integrity of the colon inducing adiposity and behavioral despair in male Sprague Dawley rats. Heliyon. 2022 Nov; 8(11):e11194. PMID: 36387539.
    3. Pag?n-Busig? JE, L?pez-Carrasquillo J, Appleyard CB, Torres-Rever?n A. Beyond depression and anxiety; a systematic review about the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in diseases of the pelvic and abdominal organs. PLoS One. 2022; 17(3):e0264909. PMID: 35275963.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Ortiz CN, Torres-Rever?n A, Appleyard CB. Metabolomics in endometriosis: challenges and perspectives for future studies. Reprod Fertil. 2021 04; 2(2):R35-R50. PMID: 35128453.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    5. Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Velazquez-Cruz J, Rivera-Mendez RM, Jimenez-Garcia JG, Rivera LA, Del Mar Mendez-Casillas M, Flores I, Al-Nakkash L, Chompre G. Voluntary Wheel Running Reduces Vesicle Development in an Endometriosis Animal Model Through Modulation of Immune Parameters. Front Reprod Health. 2021; 3. PMID: 36284640.
    6. Seguinot-Tarafa I, Luna N, Suarez E, Appleyard CB, Flores I. Inhibition of Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 Suppresses Endometriotic Vesicle Development in a Rat Model of Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2020 09; 27(9):1812-1820. PMID: 32651901.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    7. Lopez A, Cruz ML, Chompre G, Hern?ndez S, Isidro RA, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Influence of Stress on the Vitamin D-Vitamin D Receptor System, Macrophages, and the Local Inflammatory Milieu in Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2020 12; 27(12):2175-2186. PMID: 32583376.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Appleyard CB, Flores I, Torres-Rever?n A. The Link Between Stress and Endometriosis: from Animal Models to the Clinical Scenario. Reprod Sci. 2020 09; 27(9):1675-1686. PMID: 32542543.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. Torres-Rever?n A, Rana M, Gorabi V, Rivera-Lopez LL, Appleyard CB. Short treatment with antalarmin alters adrenal gland receptors in the rat model of endometriosis. PLoS One. 2020; 15(1):e0227456. PMID: 31935235.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Rivera J, Isidro RA, Loucil-Alicea RY, Cruz ML, Appleyard CB, Isidro AA, Chompre G, Colon-Rivera K, Noel RJ. Infusion of HIV-1 Nef-expressing astrocytes into the rat hippocampus induces enteropathy and interstitial pneumonitis and increases blood-brain-barrier permeability. PLoS One. 2019; 14(11):e0225760. PMID: 31774879.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Torres-Rever?n A, Rivera-Lopez LL, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Antagonizing the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 with antalarmin reduces the progression of endometriosis. PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0197698. PMID: 30427841.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Martinez-Orengo N, Cruz ML, Velazquez B, Noel RJ, Appleyard CB. Nurturing interest in science and understanding the role of a scientist by teaching younger students how to apply scientific thinking during daily activities. Adv Physiol Educ. 2018 Sep 01; 42(3):466-472. PMID: 29972061.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Torres-Rever?n A, Rivera LL, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Environmental Manipulations as an Effective Alternative Treatment to Reduce Endometriosis Progression. Reprod Sci. 2018 09; 25(9):1336-1348. PMID: 29137551.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. Cuevas M, Cruz ML, Ramirez AE, Flores I, Thompson KJ, Bayona M, Vernon MW, Appleyard CB. Stress During Development of Experimental Endometriosis Influences Nerve Growth and Disease Progression. Reprod Sci. 2018 03; 25(3):347-357. PMID: 29108503.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Isidro RA, Lopez A, Cruz ML, Gonzalez Torres MI, Chompre G, Isidro AA, Appleyard CB. The Probiotic VSL#3 Modulates Colonic Macrophages, Inflammation, and Microflora in Acute Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid Colitis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2017 08; 65(8):445-461. PMID: 28692320.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Hernandez S, Cruz ML, Seguinot II, Torres-Reveron A, Appleyard CB. Impact of Psychological Stress on Pain Perception in an Animal Model of Endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2017 10; 24(10):1371-1381. PMID: 28093054.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    17. Isidro RA, Appleyard CB. Colonic macrophage polarization in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 07 01; 311(1):G59-73. PMID: 27229123.
      Citations: 89     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    18. de Jesus ER, Isidro RA, Cruz ML, Marty H, Appleyard CB. Adoptive Transfer of Dendritic Cells Expressing Fas Ligand Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2016 Apr; 7(2). PMID: 27274906.
    19. Torres-Rever?n A, Palermo K, Hern?ndez-L?pez A, Hern?ndez S, Cruz ML, Thompson KJ, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Endometriosis Is Associated With a Shift in MU Opioid and NMDA Receptor Expression in the Brain Periaqueductal Gray. Reprod Sci. 2016 09; 23(9):1158-67. PMID: 27089914.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Abreu-Delgado Y, Isidro RA, Torres EA, Gonz?lez A, Cruz ML, Isidro AA, Gonz?lez-Keelan CI, Medero P, Appleyard CB. Serum vitamin D and colonic vitamin D receptor in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr 07; 22(13):3581-91. PMID: 27053850.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Hernandez S, Cruz ML, Torres-Reveron A, Appleyard CB. Impact of physical activity on pain perception in an animal model of endometriosis. J Endometr Pelvic Pain Disord. 2015 Jul-Sep; 7(3):89-114. PMID: 28217664.
    22. Isidro RA, Isidro AA, Cruz ML, Hernandez S, Appleyard CB. Double immunofluorescent staining of rat macrophages in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue using two monoclonal mouse antibodies. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015 Dec; 144(6):613-21. PMID: 26403093.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Isidro RA, Cruz ML, Isidro AA, Baez A, Arroyo A, Gonz?lez-Marqu?s WA, Gonz?lez-Keelan C, Torres EA, Appleyard CB. Immunohistochemical expression of SP-NK-1R-EGFR pathway and VDR in colonic inflammation and neoplasia. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Feb 14; 21(6):1749-58. PMID: 25684939.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Pacheco WI, Noel RJ, Porter JT, Appleyard CB. Beyond the GRE: using a composite score to predict ?the success of Puerto Rican students in a biomedical ?PhD program. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2015; 14(2). PMID: 25828404.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Hern?ndez S, Thompson KJ, Bayona M, Flores I. Stress management affects outcomes in the pathophysiology of an endometriosis model. Reprod Sci. 2015 Apr; 22(4):431-41. PMID: 25015902.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Isidro RA, Bonilla FJ, Pagan H, Cruz ML, Lopez P, Godoy L, Hernandez S, Loucil-Alicea RY, Rivera-Amill V, Yamamura Y, Isidro AA, Appleyard CB. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Alters the Morphology and Secretion Profile of Both Polarized and Unpolarized Human Macrophages in a Polarization-Dependent Manner. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2014 Jun 20; 5(3):1000227. PMID: 25177525.
    27. Appleyard CB, Antonia SJ, Sullivan DM, Santiago-Cardona PG, C?ceres W, Velez H, Torres-Ruiz JA, Wright KL. Building a long distance training program to enhance clinical cancer research capacity in Puerto Rico. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2014; 9(4):254-62. PMID: 25626061.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Baez A, Pacheco W, Appleyard CB. The graduate student portfolio: organize and energize your career development. Physiologist. 2012 Oct; 55(5):177-8. PMID: 23155926.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Cuevas M, Flores I, Thompson KJ, Ramos-Ortolaza DL, Torres-Reveron A, Appleyard CB. Stress exacerbates endometriosis manifestations and inflammatory parameters in an animal model. Reprod Sci. 2012 Aug; 19(8):851-62. PMID: 22527982.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Pag?n B, Isidro AA, Cruz ML, Ren Y, Coppola D, Wu J, Appleyard CB. Erlotinib inhibits progression to dysplasia in a colitis-associated colon cancer model. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov 28; 17(44):4858-66. PMID: 22171126.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Isidro AA, Arthur JC, Jobin C, De Simone C. Pretreatment with the probiotic VSL#3 delays transition from inflammation to dysplasia in a rat model of colitis-associated cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Dec; 301(6):G1004-13. PMID: 21903764.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Uronis JM, Arthur JC, Keku T, Fodor A, Carroll IM, Cruz ML, Appleyard CB, Jobin C. Gut microbial diversity is reduced by the probiotic VSL#3 and correlates with decreased TNBS-induced colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Jan; 17(1):289-97. PMID: 20564535.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Pag?n B, Isidro AA, Coppola D, Chen Z, Ren Y, Wu J, Appleyard CB. Effect of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in a rat model of colitis-associated colon cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010 Sep; 30(9):3345-53. PMID: 20944107.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Rivera E, Hern?ndez GA, Flores I. Experimental endometriosis in the rat is correlated with colonic motor function alterations but not with bacterial load. Reprod Sci. 2007 Dec; 14(8):815-24. PMID: 18089600.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Santiago C, Pag?n B, Isidro AA, Appleyard CB. Prolonged chronic inflammation progresses to dysplasia in a novel rat model of colitis-associated colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15; 67(22):10766-73. PMID: 18006820.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Santiago OI, Rivera E, Ferder L, Appleyard CB. An angiotensin II receptor antagonist reduces inflammatory parameters in two models of colitis. Regul Pept. 2008 Feb 07; 146(1-3):250-9. PMID: 18023891.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. Appleyard CB, Morales M, Santiago C. Chronic inflammation alters the contribution of neurokinin receptor subtypes to epithelial function in rat colon. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Jan; 53(1):220-8. PMID: 17510797.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    38. Flores I, Rivera E, Ruiz LA, Santiago OI, Vernon MW, Appleyard CB. Molecular profiling of experimental endometriosis identified gene expression patterns in common with human disease. Fertil Steril. 2007 May; 87(5):1180-99. PMID: 17478174.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    39. Rivera E, Flores I, Rivera E, Appleyard CB. Molecular profiling of a rat model of colitis: validation of known inflammatory genes and identification of novel disease-associated targets. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Oct; 12(10):950-66. PMID: 17012966.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    40. Appleyard CB, Morales M, Percy WH. Regional variations in neurokinin receptor subtype contributions to muscularis mucosae and epithelial function in rat colon. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Mar; 51(3):506-16. PMID: 16614960.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. Rojas-Cartagena C, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in an animal model of acute colitis. Cytokine. 2005 Oct 21; 32(2):85-93. PMID: 16213154.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Rojas-Cartagena C, Appleyard CB, Santiago OI, Flores I. Experimental intestinal endometriosis is characterized by increased levels of soluble TNFRSF1B and downregulation of Tnfrsf1a and Tnfrsf1b gene expression. Biol Reprod. 2005 Dec; 73(6):1211-8. PMID: 16093357.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Hern?ndez GA, Valent?n MR, Appleyard CB. Effect of bacterial chemotactic peptides on intestinal inflammation in animal models of acute and chronic "relapsed" colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Aug; 50(8):1444-53. PMID: 16110833.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    44. Santana C, Santiago C, Appleyard CB . Ethnicity and Disease. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in DMH reactivated rat model of colitis. 2005; 2(15):85-93.
    45. Appleyard CB, Hern?ndez G, Rios-Bedoya CF. Basic epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 Mar; 10(2):106-11. PMID: 15168809.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Hern?ndez GA, Appleyard CB. Bacterial load in animal models of acute and chronic 'reactivated' colitis. Digestion. 2003; 67(3):161-9. PMID: 12853728.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Appleyard CB, Alvarez A, Percy WH. Temporal changes in colonic vascular architecture and inflammatory mediator levels in animal models of colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Sep; 47(9):2007-14. PMID: 12353846.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Asfaha S, MacNaughton WK, Appleyard CB, Chadee K, Wallace JL. Persistent epithelial dysfunction and bacterial translocation after resolution of intestinal inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Sep; 281(3):G635-44. PMID: 11518675.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Hathaway CA, Appleyard CB, Percy WH, Williams JL. Experimental colitis increases blood-brain barrier permeability in rabbits. Am J Physiol. 1999 05; 276(5):G1174-80. PMID: 10330008.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    50. Appleyard CB, Williams JL, Hathaway CA, Percy WH. Temporal patterns of colonic blood flow and tissue damage in an animal model of colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1999 Feb; 44(2):431-8. PMID: 10063934.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    51. Swain MG, Appleyard C, Wallace J, Wong H, Le T. Endogenous glucocorticoids released during acute toxic liver injury enhance hepatic IL-10 synthesis and release. Am J Physiol. 1999 01; 276(1):G199-205. PMID: 9886996.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Ferraz JG, Tigley AW, Appleyard CB, Wallace JL. TNF-alpha contributes to the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric damage in cirrhotic rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr; 272(4 Pt 1):G809-14. PMID: 9142912.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Swain MG, Appleyard CB, Wallace JL, Maric M. TNF-alpha facilitates inflammation-induced glucocorticoid secretion in rats with biliary obstruction. J Hepatol. 1997 Feb; 26(2):361-8. PMID: 9059958.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Davies NM, R?seth AG, Appleyard CB, McKnight W, Del Soldato P, Calignano A, Cirino G, Wallace JL. NO-naproxen vs. naproxen: ulcerogenic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb; 11(1):69-79. PMID: 9042976.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Swain M G, Appleyard C B, Wallace J L and Maric M. Journal of Hepatology. TNF? facilitates inflammation-induced glucocorticoid secretion in rats with biliary obstruction. 1997; 2(26):361-368.
    56. Appleyard CB, McCafferty DM, Tigley AW, Swain MG, Wallace JL. Tumor necrosis factor mediation of NSAID-induced gastric damage: role of leukocyte adherence. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jan; 270(1 Pt 1):G42-8. PMID: 8772499.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Wallace JL, Le T, Carter L, Appleyard CB, Beck PL. Hapten-induced chronic colitis in the rat: alternatives to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 1995 Aug; 33(4):237-9. PMID: 8527832.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Appleyard CB, Wallace JL. Reactivation of hapten-induced colitis and its prevention by anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jul; 269(1 Pt 1):G119-25. PMID: 7631788.
      Citations: 75     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. Appleyard CB, Hillier K. Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in normal and inflamed human colon mucosa: evidence for the involvement of the pathway of platelet-activating factor synthesis de novo in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 1995 Jun; 88(6):713-7. PMID: 7634757.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Appleyard CB, Hillier K. Catabolism of platelet-activating factor by human colonic mucosa. Calcium dependence of the catabolizing enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Jun 23; 43(12):2503-9. PMID: 1632809.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Bessos H, Appleyard C, Micklem L R and Pepper D S. Preparative Chromatography. Monoclonal antibody leakage from gels: Effect of support, activation and eluent composition. 1991; 3(1):207-220.
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