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Charles Michael Drain

TitleProfessor of Chemistry
Faculty RankProfessor
InstitutionHunter College, CUNY
Departmentchemistry
AddressRoom 1321 HN, Hunter College, CUNY
695 Park Avenue
New York NY 10065
Phone(212) 650-3791
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    Other Positions
    TitleAdjunct professor
    InstitutionRockefeller University
    DepartmentPhotobiology


    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Education and Training. I have mentored more than 25 Ph.D. (5 underrepresented in STEM), 5 postdocs, and near 60 undergraduates (ca. 25 underrepresented in STEM) in dye chemistry, photophysics, and nanotechnology such as for applications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. High school students working on projects related to this proposal were supported by Project SEED, the “Harlem Children’s Society”, and supplements to research grants to allow disadvantage students research experiences. I have been on Hunter’s NIH supported Research Centers at Minority Institutions (RCMI) internal advisory committee for more than a decade. Much of our integrated radiochemistry doctoral research at Hunter College focuses on biomedical applications in cancer. I am co-PI of an NSF IGERT radiochemistry training grant and the relevant aspects of this program include fundamental radiochemistry with applications to nuclear medicine. (1) Small molecular probes – synthesis and evaluation; (2) Nanotechnology – targeted radionuclides; and (3) Radioelements in the environment. Hunter has the only radiochemistry training program in the City University of New York, and is nationally recognized for its innovative approaches. This supported three of my doctoral students working in cancer. I am Chair of the Department of Chemistry at Hunter College, in which 16 faculty, 5 lecturers, and 10 staff serve over 8,000 students a year. Editorial boards: Analytical Chemistry Insights; E-Journal of Chemistry; Chemistry.
    Research, the lab focuses on the applications of porphyrinoid dyes, nanophotonic materials, and science education. Interrelated projects include using these dyes for: (a) photodynamic therapeutic, (b) robust chelators for radio nuclides for diagnostics and therapies, (c) developing photonic sensors and contrast agents for biomedical applications, (d) developing a fundamental understanding of the photophysical properties of these dyes in relation to chemical structure, (e) developing and exploiting ‘click’ type chemical modifications of these dyes to append bio-targeting and other functional groups. Interestingly, appending different moieties to the exocyclic positions of the dyes make the suitable for solar energy harvesting. Major Reviews of our work relevant to the current application are below. Of particular interest are cancers with significant disparities in prognosis and outcomes: specifically head and neck and breast cancer.


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Younes A, Ali JS, Duda A, Alliot C, Huclier-Markai S, Wang J, Kabalan F, Nemirovsky D, Deng R, Nur MT, Cao M, Groveman S, Drain CM, Alexandratos SD. Uptake and Removal of Uranium by and from Human Teeth. Chem Res Toxicol. 2021 Jan 28. PMID: 33507734.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    2. Hernández-Gil J, Lewis JS, Reiner T, Drain CM, Gonzales J. Leveraging synthetic chlorins for bio-imaging applications. Chem Commun (Camb). 2020 Oct 20; 56(83):12608-12611. PMID: 32945820.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    3. Younes A, Ali JS, Nur MT, Duda A, Wang J, Samson J, Kawamura A, Francesconi L, Alexandratos S, Drain CM. Pistachio shells as remediating agents for uranium in contaminated industrial seawater. J Environ Radioact. 2020 Jun; 217:106209. PMID: 32217241.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    4. Singh S, Aggarwal A, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Jovanovic IR, Landress M, Tuz MP, Gao R, Drain CM. Comparing a thioglycosylated chlorin and phthalocyanine as potential theranostic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2020 02 01; 28(3):115259. PMID: 31918951.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    5. Rizvi W, Berisha N, Farley C, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Andreou C, Khwaja E, Fuentes GV, Kircher MF, Gao R, Drain CM. Distorted Phthalocyanines by Click Chemistry: Photoacoustic, Photothermal, and Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Studies. Chemistry. 2019 Nov 18; 25(64):14517-14521. PMID: 31515825.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    6. Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Younes A, Cao M, Ali J, Cicek HT, Tully KM, Ponnala S, Babich JW, Deri MA, Lewis JS, Francesconi LC, Drain CM. Improved synthesis of the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-HOPO. Org Biomol Chem. 2019 07 17; 17(28):6866-6871. PMID: 31268109.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    7. Thompson SA, Aggarwal A, Singh S, Adam AP, Tome JPC, Drain CM. Compromising the plasma membrane as a secondary target in photodynamic therapy-induced necrosis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2018 10 01; 26(18):5224-5228. PMID: 30262133.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Sayeedi M, Rizvi W, Singh S, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Practical, high-yield synthesis of thiol-terminated diacetylenes for formation of conductive monolayers. Tetrahedron Lett. 2018 Oct 03; 59(40):3629-3631. PMID: 30983641.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    9. Gonzales J, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Hart D, Yuen M, Sifuentes MP, Samarxhiu B, Maranan M, Berisha N, Batteas J, Drain CM. One-Pot Synthesis of Four Chlorin Derivatives by a Divergent Ylide. J Org Chem. 2018 06 15; 83(12):6307-6314. PMID: 29775305.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    10. Pratt EC, Shaffer TM, Zhang Q, Drain CM, Grimm J. Nanoparticles as multimodal photon transducers of ionizing radiation. Nat Nanotechnol. 2018 05; 13(5):418-426. PMID: 29581551.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Kossatz S, Carney B, Farley C, Weber WA, Drain CM, Reiner T. Direct Imaging of Drug Distribution and Target Engagement of the PARP Inhibitor Rucaparib. J Nucl Med. 2018 08; 59(8):1316-1320. PMID: 29572258.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. Pereira PMR, Rizvi W, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Berisha N, Fernandes R, Tomé JPC, Drain CM. Carbon-1 versus Carbon-3 Linkage of d-Galactose to Porphyrins: Synthesis, Uptake, and Photodynamic Efficiency. Bioconjug Chem. 2018 02 21; 29(2):306-315. PMID: 29313666.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Pawlicki AA, Vilan A, Jurow M, Drain CM, Batteas JD. The influence of nearest-neighbour interactions and assembly dynamics on the transport properties of porphyrin supramolecular assemblies on Au(111). Faraday Discuss. 2017 10 26; 204:349-366. PMID: 28871297.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    14. Farley C, Aggarwal A, Singh S, Dolor A, To P, Falber A, Crossley M, Drain CM. A Structural Model of Nitro-Porphyrin Dyes Based on Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory. J Comput Chem. 2018 07 05; 39(18):1129-1142. PMID: 28749597.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    15. Wall MA, Shaffer TM, Harmsen S, Tschaharganeh DF, Huang CH, Lowe SW, Drain CM, Kircher MF. Chelator-Free Radiolabeling of SERRS Nanoparticles for Whole-Body PET and Intraoperative Raman Imaging. Theranostics. 2017; 7(12):3068-3077. PMID: 28839464.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Pereira PMR, Berisha N, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Fernandes R, Tomé JPC, Drain CM. Cancer cell spheroids are a better screen for the photodynamic efficiency of glycosylated photosensitizers. PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0177737. PMID: 28545086.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. Wall MA, Harmsen S, Pal S, Zhang L, Arianna G, Lombardi JR, Drain CM, Kircher MF. Surfactant-Free Shape Control of Gold Nanoparticles Enabled by Unified Theoretical Framework of Nanocrystal Synthesis. . 2017 Jun; 29(21). PMID: 28374940.
      Citations:    
    18. Gonzales J, Bhupathiraju NV, Perea W, Chu H, Berisha N, Bueno V, Dodic N, Rozenberg J, Greenbaum NL, Drain CM. Facile synthesis of chlorin bioconjugates by a series of click reactions. Chem Commun (Camb). 2017 Mar 28; 53(26):3773-3776. PMID: 28304032.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    19. Shaffer TM, Drain CM, Grimm J. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources. J Nucl Med. 2016 Nov; 57(11):1661-1666. PMID: 27688469.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Farley C, Bhupathiraju NV, John BK, Drain CM. Tuning the Structure and Photophysics of a Fluorous Phthalocyanine Platform. J Phys Chem A. 2016 Sep 29; 120(38):7451-64. PMID: 27552232.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    21. Shaffer TM, Harmsen S, Khwaja E, Kircher MF, Drain CM, Grimm J. Stable Radiolabeling of Sulfur-Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles with Copper-64. . 2016 09 14; 16(9):5601-4. PMID: 27464258.
      Citations:    
    22. Pawlicki A, Avery E, Jurow M, Ewers B, Vilan A, Drain CM, Batteas J. Studies of the structure and phase transitions of nano-confined pentanedithiol and its application in directing hierarchical molecular assemblies on Au(1?1?1). J Phys Condens Matter. 2016 Mar 09; 28(9):094013. PMID: 26872125.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    23. Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Rizvi W, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Fluorinated porphyrinoids as efficient platforms for new photonic materials, sensors, and therapeutics. Org Biomol Chem. 2016 Jan 14; 14(2):389-408. PMID: 26514229.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Singh S, Aggarwal A, Bhupathiraju NV, Arianna G, Tiwari K, Drain CM. Glycosylated Porphyrins, Phthalocyanines, and Other Porphyrinoids for Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Chem Rev. 2015 Sep 23; 115(18):10261-306. PMID: 26317756.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    25. Shaffer TM, Wall MA, Harmsen S, Longo VA, Drain CM, Kircher MF, Grimm J. Silica nanoparticles as substrates for chelator-free labeling of oxophilic radioisotopes. . 2015 Feb 11; 15(2):864-8. PMID: 25559467.
      Citations:    
    26. Singh S, Aggarwal A, Bhupathiraju NVSDK, Newton B, Nafees A, Gao R, Drain CM. Synthesis and cell phototoxicity of a triply bridged fused diporphyrin appended with six thioglucose units. Tetrahedron Lett. 2014 Nov 12; 55(46):6311-6314. PMID: 25395694.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    
    27. Hasson TH, Takaoka A, de la Rica R, Matsui H, Smeureanu G, Drain CM, Kawamura A. Immunostimulatory lipid nanoparticles from herbal medicine. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2014 Apr; 83(4):493-7. PMID: 24495243.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Aggarwal A, Thompson S, Singh S, Newton B, Moore A, Gao R, Gu X, Mukherjee S, Drain CM. Photophysics of glycosylated derivatives of a chlorin, isobacteriochlorin and bacteriochlorin for photodynamic theragnostics: discovery of a two-photon-absorbing photosensitizer. Photochem Photobiol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 90(2):419-30. PMID: 24112086.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Jurow M, Manichev V, Pabon C, Hageman B, Matolina Y, Drain CM. Self-organization of Zr(IV) porphyrinoids on graphene oxide surfaces by axial metal coordination. Inorg Chem. 2013 Sep 16; 52(18):10576-82. PMID: 24007316.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    30. Jurow MJ, Hageman BA, Dimasi E, Nam CY, Pabon C, Black CT, Drain CM. Controlling Morphology and Molecular Packing of Alkane Substituted Phthalocyanine Blend Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells. J Mater Chem A Mater. 2013 Feb 07; 1(5):1557-1565. PMID: 23589766.
      Citations:    
    31. Radivojevic I, Bazzan G, Burton-Pye BP, Ithisuphalap K, Saleh R, Durstock MF, Francesconi LC, Drain CM. Zirconium((IV)) and Hafnium((IV)) Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Complexes as New Dyes for Solar Cell Devices. J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces. 2012 Aug 02; 116(30):15867-15877. PMID: 22962625.
      Citations:    
    32. Aggarwal A, Singh S, Samson J, Drain CM. Adaptive organic nanoparticles of a teflon-coated iron (III) porphyrin catalytically activate dioxygen for cyclohexene oxidation. Macromol Rapid Commun. 2012 Jul 26; 33(14):1220-6. PMID: 22517679.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    33. Jurow M, Farley C, Pabon C, Hageman B, Dolor A, Drain CM. Facile synthesis of a flexible tethered porphyrin dimer that preferentially complexes fullerene C70. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012 May 16; 48(39):4731-3. PMID: 22488020.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    34. Samson J, Piscopo I, Yampolski A, Nahirney P, Parpas A, Aggarwal A, Saleh R, Drain CM. Fabrication of Size-Tunable Metallic Nanoparticles Using Plasmid DNA as a Biomolecular Reactor. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2011 Oct 21; 1(1):64-78. PMID: 28348280.
      Citations:    
    35. Aggarwal A, Singh S, Zhang Y, Anthes M, Samaroo D, Gao R, Drain CM. Synthesis and photophysics of an octathioglycosylated zinc(II) phthalocyanine. Tetrahedron Lett. 2011 Oct 19; 52(42):5456-5459. PMID: 21966031.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    36. Singh S, Aggarwal A, Farley C, Hageman BA, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Hierarchical organization of a robust porphyrin cage self-assembled by hydrogen bonds. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 Jul 07; 47(25):7134-6. PMID: 21614367.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    37. Sahar-Halbany A, Vance JM, Drain CM. Lithography of Polymer Nanostructures on Glass for Teaching Polymer Chemistry and Physics. J Chem Educ. 2011 May 01; 88(5):615-618. PMID: 21686088.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    38. Toschi A, Lee E, Thompson S, Gadir N, Yellen P, Drain CM, Ohh M, Foster DA. Phospholipase D-mTOR requirement for the Warburg effect in human cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010 Dec 18; 299(1):72-9. PMID: 20805015.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Singh S, Aggarwal A, Thompson S, Tomé JP, Zhu X, Samaroo D, Vinodu M, Gao R, Drain CM. Synthesis and photophysical properties of thioglycosylated chlorins, isobacteriochlorins, and bacteriochlorins for bioimaging and diagnostics. Bioconjug Chem. 2010 Nov 17; 21(11):2136-46. PMID: 20964323.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Jurow M, Schuckman AE, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Porphyrins as Molecular Electronic Components of Functional Devices. Coord Chem Rev. 2010 Oct 01; 254(19-20):2297-2310. PMID: 20936084.
      Citations:    
    41. Varotto A, Nam CY, Radivojevic I, Tomé JP, Cavaleiro JA, Black CT, Drain CM. Phthalocyanine blends improve bulk heterojunction solar cells. J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Mar 03; 132(8):2552-4. PMID: 20136126.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    
    42. Radivojevic I, Likhtina I, Shi X, Singh S, Drain CM. Self-organized nanofibers and nanorods of porphyrins bearing hydrogen bonding motifs. Chem Commun (Camb). 2010 Mar 14; 46(10):1643-5. PMID: 20177602.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    43. de la Rica R, Thompson S, Baldi A, Fernandez-Sanchez C, Drain CM, Matsui H. Label-free cancer cell detection with impedimetric transducers. Anal Chem. 2009 Dec 15; 81(24):10167-71. PMID: 19911810.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Smeureanu G, Aggarwal A, Soll CE, Arijeloye J, Malave E, Drain CM. Enhanced catalytic activity and unexpected products from the oxidation of cyclohexene by organic nanoparticles of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinatoiron(III) in water by using O2. Chemistry. 2009 Nov 09; 15(44):12133-40. PMID: 19777510.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    45. Falber A, Burton-Pye BP, Radivojevic I, Todaro L, Saleh R, Francesconi L, Drain CM. Ternary Porphyrinato Hf(IV) and Zr(IV) - Polyoxometalate Complexes. Eur J Inorg Chem. 2009 Jun 01; 2009(17):2459-2466. PMID: 20543903.
      Citations:    
    46. Drain CM, Varotto A, Radivojevic I. Self-organized porphyrinic materials. Chem Rev. 2009 May; 109(5):1630-58. PMID: 19253946.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    47. Samson J, Varotto A, Nahirney PC, Toschi A, Piscopo I, Drain CM. Fabrication of metal nanoparticles using toroidal plasmid DNA as a sacrificial mold. ACS Nano. 2009 Feb 24; 3(2):339-44. PMID: 19236069.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    48. Varotto A, Todaro L, Vinodu M, Koehne J, Liu GY, Drain CM. Self-organization of a new fluorous porphyrin and C60 films on indium-tin-oxide electrode. Chem Commun (Camb). 2008 Oct 28; (40):4921-3. PMID: 18931739.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    
    49. Thompson S, Chen X, Hui L, Toschi A, Foster DA, Drain CM. Low concentrations of a non-hydrolysable tetra-S-glycosylated porphyrin and low light induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via stress of the endoplasmic reticulum. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2008 Nov; 7(11):1415-21. PMID: 18958330.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Stevens N, O'Connor N, Vishwasrao H, Samaroo D, Kandel ER, Akins DL, Drain CM, Turro NJ. Two color RNA intercalating probe for cell imaging applications. J Am Chem Soc. 2008 Jun 11; 130(23):7182-3. PMID: 18489094.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Bazzan G, Smith W, Francesconi LC, Drain CM. Electrostatic self-organization of robust porphyrin-polyoxometalate films. Langmuir. 2008 Apr 01; 24(7):3244-9. PMID: 18321141.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    52. Falber A, Todaro L, Goldberg I, Favilla MV, Drain CM. Routes to new hafnium(IV) tetraaryl porphyrins and crystal structures of unusual phosphate-, sulfate-, and peroxide-bridged dimers. Inorg Chem. 2008 Jan 21; 47(2):454-67. PMID: 18088113.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    53. Samaroo D, Vinodu M, Chen X, Drain CM. meso-Tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin as an efficient platform for combinatorial synthesis and the selection of new photodynamic therapeutics using a cancer cell line. J Comb Chem. 2007 Nov-Dec; 9(6):998-1011. PMID: 17877415.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Balaban TS, Berova N, Drain CM, Hauschild R, Huang X, Kalt H, Lebedkin S, Lehn JM, Nifaitis F, Pescitelli G, Prokhorenko VI, Riedel G, Smeureanu G, Zeller J. Syntheses and energy transfer in multiporphyrinic arrays self-assembled with hydrogen-bonding recognition groups and comparison with covalent steroidal models. Chemistry. 2007; 13(30):8411-27. PMID: 17645286.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    55. Samaroo D, Soll CE, Todaro LJ, Drain CM. Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of amine-substituted tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin. Org Lett. 2006 Oct 26; 8(22):4985-8. PMID: 17048824.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    56. Cheng KF, Thai NA, Grohmann K, Teague LC, Drain CM. Tessellation of porphyrazines with porphyrins by design. Inorg Chem. 2006 Aug 21; 45(17):6928-32. PMID: 16903751.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    57. Helt JM, Drain CM, Bazzan G. Stamping patterns of insulated gold nanowires with self-organized ultrathin polymer films. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Jul 26; 128(29):9371-7. PMID: 16848472.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    
    58. Xu C, Wu T, Mei Y, Drain CM, Batteas JD, Beers KL. Synthesis and characterization of tapered copolymer brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical copolymerization. Langmuir. 2005 Nov 22; 21(24):11136-40. PMID: 16285782.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    59. Cheng KF, Thai NA, Teague LC, Grohmann K, Drain CM. Supramolecular squares of porphyrazines. Chem Commun (Camb). 2005 Oct 07; (37):4678-80. PMID: 16175290.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    60. Chen X, Hui L, Foster DA, Drain CM. Efficient synthesis and photodynamic activity of porphyrin-saccharide conjugates: targeting and incapacitating cancer cells. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 31; 43(34):10918-29. PMID: 15323552.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. Milic T, Garno JC, Batteas JD, Smeureanu G, Drain CM. Self-organization of self-assembled tetrameric porphyrin arrays on surfaces. Langmuir. 2004 May 11; 20(10):3974-83. PMID: 15969388.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    62. Helt JM, Drain CM, Batteas JD. A benchtop method for the fabrication and patterning of nanoscale structures on polymers. J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Jan 21; 126(2):628-34. PMID: 14719962.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    63. Retsek JL, Drain CM, Kirmaier C, Nurco DJ, Medforth CJ, Smith KM, Sazanovich IV, Chirvony VS, Fajer J, Holten D. Photoinduced axial ligation and deligation dynamics of nonplanar nickel dodecaarylporphyrins. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Aug 13; 125(32):9787-800. PMID: 12904044.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    
    64. Cheng KF, Drain CM, Grohmann K. Porphyrins linked directly to the 5,5' positions of 2,2'-bipyridine: a new supramolecular building block and switch. Inorg Chem. 2003 Mar 24; 42(6):2075-83. PMID: 12639144.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    65. Gong X, Milic T, Xu C, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Preparation and characterization of porphyrin nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Dec 04; 124(48):14290-1. PMID: 12452687.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    
    66. Milic TN, Chi N, Yablon DG, Flynn GW, Batteas JD, Drain CM. Controlled hierarchical self-assembly and deposition of nanoscale photonic materials. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2002 Jun 17; 41(12):2117-9. PMID: 19746614.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    67. Drain CM. Self-organization of self-assembled photonic materials into functional devices: photo-switched conductors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 16; 99(8):5178-82. PMID: 11943850.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    
    68. Drain CM, Batteas JD, Flynn GW, Milic T, Chi N, Yablon DG, Sommers H. Designing supramolecular porphyrin arrays that self-organize into nanoscale optical and magnetic materials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 30; 99 Suppl 2:6498-502. PMID: 11880598.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    69. Shi X, Barkigia KM, Fajer J, Drain CM. Design and synthesis of porphyrins bearing rigid hydrogen bonding motifs: highly versatile building blocks for self-assembly of polymers and discrete arrays. J Org Chem. 2001 Oct 05; 66(20):6513-22. PMID: 11578199.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    70. Drain CM, Gong X, Ruta V, Soll CE, Chicoineau PF. Combinatorial synthesis and modification of functional porphyrin libraries: identification of new, amphipathic motifs for biomolecule binding. J Comb Chem. 1999 Jul-Aug; 1(4):286-90. PMID: 10748737.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    71. Drain CM, Nifiatis F, Vasenko A, Batteas JD. Porphyrin Tessellation by Design: Metal-Mediated Self-Assembly of Large Arrays and Tapes. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 1998 Sep 18; 37(17):2344-2347. PMID: 29710946.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    
    72. Wade D, Boman A, Wåhlin B, Drain CM, Andreu D, Boman HG, Merrifield RB. All-D amino acid-containing channel-forming antibiotic peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jun; 87(12):4761-5. PMID: 1693777.
      Citations: 172     Fields:    Translation:Cells
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