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Andrew Tsin

TitleChair and Associate Dean
InstitutionUniversity of Texas Rio Grande Valley
DepartmentBiomedical Sciences
Address1210 W. Schunior St
Edingburg TX 78541
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    Other Positions
    TitleAdjunct Professor

    TitleAdjunct Professor
    InstitutionUTH-San Antonio

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    2011Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics, Science and Engineering Mentoring, White House Office of Science and Technology
    2014Mentor Award for Lifetime Achievement, American Association for the Advancement of Science
    2018Ruth Kirschtein Diversity of Science Award, American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Research Interests – Dr. Andrew Tsin

    Eye Disease Development: Diabetic Retinopathy & Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    An recent emphasis of our vision research laboratory is to learn how hyperglycemia and/or insulin induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by retinal cells. Retinal pigment epithelial cells, retinal pericytes, and endothelial cells are maintained in culture. Growth factors such as VEGF, transforming growth factor (TGF), and bone morphological proteins (BMP) are assayed for protein end-product using ELISA. The expression of these proteins is measured by RNA protection assays. We are particularly interested in the effect of BMP-4, TGB-ß, and PEDF on the secretion of VEGF by retinal cells. Our long term goal is to learn how cytokines mediate angiogenesis leading to diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration.

    Biochemistry of the Cone Visual Cycle in the Eye
    A major emphasis of our laboratory is to investigate the mechanism of pigment regeneration in the cone visual system. Upon light adaptation, cone pigments are bleached to initiate electrical signals in the cone photoreceptors. These signals are then transmitted by neurons to the brain for color visual perception. In order to sustain such visual function, cone pigment must be regenerated in-situ but the underlying mechanism of this cone pigment regeneration is not known. Using animals models, the kinetics of cone pigment bleaching and regeneration are studied in details using biochemical methods. The cellular mechanisms of cone pigment regeneration are also studied using Muller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. Specifically, we focus on the abilities of these cells to esterify, isomerize and oxidize the vitamin A (retinoid) chromophore of cone visual pigments.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Kim M, Morales LD, Lee CJ, Olivarez SA, Kim WJ, Hernandez J, Mummidi S, Jenkinson C, Tsin AT, Jang IS, Slaga TJ, Kim DJ. Overexpression of TC-PTP in murine epidermis attenuates skin tumor formation. Oncogene. 2020 May; 39(21):4241-4256. PMID: 32286519.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    2. Tsin A, Betts-Obregon B, Grigsby J. Visual cycle proteins: Structure, function, and roles in human retinal disease. J Biol Chem. 2018 08 24; 293(34):13016-13021. PMID: 30002120.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Baek M, Kim M, Lim JS, Morales LD, Hernandez J, Mummidi S, Williams-Blangero S, Jang IS, Tsin AT, Kim DJ. Epidermal-specific deletion of TC-PTP promotes UVB-induced epidermal cell survival through the regulation of Flk-1/JNK signaling. Cell Death Dis. 2018 06 28; 9(7):730. PMID: 29955047.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    4. Bermea KC, Rodríguez-García A, Tsin A, Barrera-Saldaña HA. Somatolactogens and diabetic retinopathy. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2018 Aug; 41:42-47. PMID: 29452885.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    5. Pérez-Ibave DC, Rodríguez-Sánchez IP, Garza-Rodríguez ML, Pérez-Maya AA, Luna M, Arámburo C, Tsin A, Perry G, Mohamed-Noriega K, Mohamed-Noriega J, Cavazos-Adame H, Mohamed-Hamsho J, Barrera-Saldaña HA. Expression of growth hormone gene in the baboon eye. Exp Eye Res. 2018 04; 169:157-169. PMID: 29407222.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    6. Cheng B, Morales LD, Zhang Y, Mito S, Tsin A. Niclosamide induces protein ubiquitination and inhibits multiple pro-survival signaling pathways in the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell line. PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0184324. PMID: 28877265.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    7. Betts-Obregon BS, Salinas M, Oladunni D, Negrete GR, Tsin AT. Chemical Modification of Ginsenoside on Cell Viability and Cytokine Secretion. Curr Aging Sci. 2017; 10(1):68-75. PMID: 27659265.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. Grigsby JG, Allen DM, Ferrigno AS, Vellanki S, Pouw CE, Hejny WA, Tsin ATC. Autocrine and Paracrine Secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Pre-Hypoxic Diabetic Retina. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2017; 13(2):161-174. PMID: 27748176.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Aryan N, Betts-Obregon BS, Perry G, Tsin AT. Oxidative Stress Induces Senescence in Cultured RPE Cells. Open Neurol J. 2016; 10:83-7. PMID: 27651846.
    10. Betts-Obregon BS, Mondragon AA, Mendiola AS, LeBaron RG, Asmis R, Zou T, Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Tsin AT. TGFß induces BIGH3 expression and human retinal pericyte apoptosis: a novel pathway of diabetic retinopathy. Eye (Lond). 2016 Dec; 30(12):1639-1647. PMID: 27564721.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Pedraza FJ, Avalos JC, Yust BG, Tsin A, Sardar DK. Effect of surface coating of KYb2F7:Tm(3+) on optical properties and biomedical applications. Nanotechnology. 2016 Sep 23; 27(38):385601. PMID: 27518385.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    12. Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Betts-Obregon B, Tsin AT, DeSa RJ. Technical brief: Pump-probe paradigm in an integrating cavity to study photodecomposition processes. Mol Vis. 2016; 22:953-8. PMID: 27559291.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    13. Moritz RJ, LeBaron RG, Phelix CF, Rupaimoole R, Kim HS, Tsin A, Asmis R. Macrophage TGF-ß1 and the Proapoptotic Extracellular Matrix Protein BIGH3 Induce Renal Cell Apoptosis in Prediabetic and Diabetic Conditions. Int J Clin Med. 2016 Jul; 7(7):496-510. PMID: 28149671.
    14. Wambo TO, Chen LY, McHardy SF, Tsin AT. Molecular dynamics study of human carbonic anhydrase II in complex with Zn(2+) and acetazolamide on the basis of all-atom force field simulations. Biophys Chem. 2016 Jul-Aug; 214-215:54-60. PMID: 27232456.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    15. Betts-Obregon BS, Vellanki S, Buikema J, Tsin AT, Wright K. Effect of Glucose on Retinal Endothelial Cell Viability and VEGF Secretion. HSOA J Cell Biol Cell Metabol. 2016; 3(1). PMID: 27833938.
    16. Vellanki S, Ferrigno A, Alanis Y, Betts-Obregon BS, Tsin AT. High Glucose and Glucose Deprivation Modulate Müller Cell Viability and VEGF Secretion. Int J Ophthalmol Eye Sci. 2016 Feb; 4(2):178-183. PMID: 27347496.
    17. Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Betts-Obregon B, Yust B, Mimun J, Sung D, Sardar D, Tsin AT. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein protects retinoids from photodegradation. Photochem Photobiol. 2015 Mar-Apr; 91(2):371-8. PMID: 25565073.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Mondragon AA, Betts-Obregon BS, Moritz RJ, Parvathaneni K, Navarro MM, Kim HS, Lee CF, LeBaron RG, Asmis R, Tsin AT. BIGH3 protein and macrophages in retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2015 Jan; 20(1):29-37. PMID: 25378215.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Betts-Obregon BS, Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Tsin AT. Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotes retinol uptake and release by rat Müller cells (rMC-1) in vitro: implications for the cone visual cycle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 02; 55(10):6265-71. PMID: 25183762.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Grigsby JG, Cardona SM, Pouw CE, Muniz A, Mendiola AS, Tsin AT, Allen DM, Cardona AE. The role of microglia in diabetic retinopathy. J Ophthalmol. 2014; 2014:705783. PMID: 25258680.
    21. Gonzalez-Fernandez F, Sung D, Haswell KM, Tsin A, Ghosh D. Thiol-dependent antioxidant activity of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. Exp Eye Res. 2014 Mar; 120:167-74. PMID: 24424263.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Muñiz A, Greene WA, Plamper ML, Choi JH, Johnson AJ, Tsin AT, Wang HC. Retinoid uptake, processing, and secretion in human iPS-RPE support the visual cycle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jan 09; 55(1):198-209. PMID: 24255038.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. Godoy DL, Betts-Obregon BS, Tsin AT. Ginsenoside-Rb1 Inhibition of VEGF Release - Structure and Activity Relations (SAR) Perspective. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2014; 3(2):38-9. PMID: 25738157.
    24. Yust BG, Sardar DK, Mimun LC, Gangadharan AK, Tsin AT. Rare Earth doped nanoparticles in imaging and PDT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Feb 19; 8594. PMID: 25429335.
    25. Barrera FJ, Yust B, Mimun LC, Nash KL, Tsin AT, Sardar DK. Optical and spectroscopic properties of human whole blood and plasma with and without Y2O3 and Nd³?:Y2O3 nanoparticles. Lasers Med Sci. 2013 Nov; 28(6):1559-66. PMID: 23380906.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Obregon ID, Betts-Obregon BS, Yust B, Pedraza F, Ortiz A, Sardar D, Tsin AT. Effect of Silver Coating on Barium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity. Adv Mat Res. 2013; 787:404-407. PMID: 25125928.
    27. Yust BG, Razavi N, Pedraza F, Elliott Z, Tsin AT, Sardar DK. Enhancement of nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by the addition of silver seeds. Opt Express. 2012 Nov 19; 20(24):26511-20. PMID: 23187506.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Parvathaneni K, Grigsby JG, Betts BS, Tsin AT. Estrogen-induced retinal endothelial cell proliferation: possible involvement of pigment epithelium-derived factor and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Feb; 29(1):27-32. PMID: 23046437.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Grigsby J, Betts B, Vidro-Kotchan E, Culbert R, Tsin A. A possible role of acrolein in diabetic retinopathy: involvement of a VEGF/TGFß signaling pathway of the retinal pigment epithelium in hyperglycemia. Curr Eye Res. 2012 Nov; 37(11):1045-53. PMID: 22906079.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Betts BS, Obregon I, Tsin AT. Cultured Müller cells from mammals can synthesize and accumulate retinyl esters. Exp Eye Res. 2012 Aug; 101:56-9. PMID: 22634428.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Betts BS, Parvathaneni K, Yendluri BB, Grigsby J, Tsin AT. Ginsenoside-Rb1 Induces ARPE-19 Proliferation and Reduces VEGF Release. ISRN Ophthalmol. 2011; 2011:184295. PMID: 24527228.
    32. Grigsby JG, Parvathaneni K, Almanza MA, Botello AM, Mondragon AA, Allen DM, Tsin AT. Effects of tamoxifen versus raloxifene on retinal capillary endothelial cell proliferation. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Jun; 27(3):225-33. PMID: 21413859.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Vidro-Kotchan E, Yendluri BB, Le-Thai T, Tsin A. NBHA reduces acrolein-induced changes in ARPE-19 cells: possible involvement of TGFß. Curr Eye Res. 2011 Apr; 36(4):370-8. PMID: 21309688.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    34. Yust BG, Sardar DK, Tsin A. A Comparison of Methods for Determining Optical Properties of Thin Samples. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010 Feb 11; 7562. PMID: 25419446.
    35. Muniz A, Betts BS, Trevino AR, Buddavarapu K, Roman R, Ma JX, Tsin AT. Evidence for two retinoid cycles in the cone-dominated chicken eye. Biochemistry. 2009 Jul 28; 48(29):6854-63. PMID: 19492794.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Sardar DK, Yust BG, Barrera FJ, Mimun LC, Tsin AT. Optical absorption and scattering of bovine cornea, lens and retina in the visible region. Lasers Med Sci. 2009 Nov; 24(6):839-47. PMID: 19495828.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    37. Vidro EK, Gee S, Unda R, Ma JX, Tsin A. Glucose and TGFbeta2 modulate the viability of cultured human retinal pericytes and their VEGF release. Curr Eye Res. 2008 Nov; 33(11):984-93. PMID: 19085381.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Hatch AL, Trevino SG, Allen DM, Tsin AT. A novel cone visual cycle in the cone-dominated retina. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Aug; 85(2):175-84. PMID: 17618621.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Sardar DK, Swanland GY, Yow RM, Thomas RJ, Tsin AT. Optical properties of ocular tissues in the near infrared region. Lasers Med Sci. 2007 Mar; 22(1):46-52. PMID: 17143656.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    40. Heimsath EG, Unda R, Vidro E, Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Tsin A. ARPE-19 cell growth and cell functions in euglycemic culture media. Curr Eye Res. 2006 Dec; 31(12):1073-80. PMID: 17169846.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Thackeray B, Tsin AT. 11-cis-Acyl-CoA:retinol O-acyltransferase activity in the primary culture of chicken Muller cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 10; 45(40):12265-73. PMID: 17014079.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Vogt RR, Unda R, Yeh LC, Vidro EK, Lee JC, Tsin AT. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhances vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006 Aug 01; 98(5):1196-202. PMID: 16514669.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    43. Villazana-Espinoza ET, Hatch AL, Tsin AT. Effect of light exposure on the accumulation and depletion of retinyl ester in the chicken retina. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Oct; 83(4):871-6. PMID: 16780835.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Trevino SG, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Muniz A, Tsin AT. Retinoid cycles in the cone-dominated chicken retina. J Exp Biol. 2005 Nov; 208(Pt 21):4151-7. PMID: 16244173.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Sardar DK, Yow RM, Tsin AT, Sardar R. Optical scattering, absorption, and polarization of healthy and neovascularized human retinal tissues. J Biomed Opt. 2005 Sep-Oct; 10(5):051501. PMID: 16292945.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. Trevino SG, Schuschereba ST, Bowman PD, Tsin A. Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in ARPE-19. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun; 80(6):897-900. PMID: 15939047.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Sardar DK, Salinas FS, Perez JJ, Tsin AT. Optical characterization of bovine retinal tissues. J Biomed Opt. 2004 May-Jun; 9(3):624-31. PMID: 15189102.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Chen M, Thomson AB, Tsin AT, Basu TK. The hepatic retinyl ester hydrolase activity is depressed at the onset of diabetes in BB rats. Br J Nutr. 2003 Feb; 89(2):231-8. PMID: 12575907.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    49. Tsin A, Mata N, Villazana E, Vidro E. New developments in the visual cycle: functional role of 11-cis retinyl esters in the retinal pigment epithelium. Hong Kong J Ophthalmol. 2001 Oct; 5(1):25-29. PMID: 25750490.
    50. Lu J, Dixon WT, Tsin AT, Basu TK. The metabolic availability of vitamin A is decreased at the onset of diabetes in BB rats. J Nutr. 2000 Aug; 130(8):1958-62. PMID: 10917908.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    51. Gamble MV, Mata NL, Tsin AT, Mertz JR, Blaner WS. Substrate specificities and 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of human, mouse and bovine cis-retinol dehydrogenases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jan 03; 1476(1):3-8. PMID: 10606761.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    52. Tsin AT, Mata NL, Ray JA, Villazana ET. Substrate specificities of retinyl ester hydrolases in retinal pigment epithelium. Methods Enzymol. 2000; 316:384-400. PMID: 10800689.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Mata NL, Tsin AT. Distribution of 11-cis LRAT, 11-cis RD and 11-cis REH in bovine retinal pigment epithelium membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Oct 02; 1394(1):16-22. PMID: 9767084.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Mata NL, Villazana ET, Tsin AT. Colocalization of 11-cis retinyl esters and retinyl ester hydrolase activity in retinal pigment epithelium plasma membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Jul; 39(8):1312-9. PMID: 9660478.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Mata JR, Mata NL, Tsin AT. Substrate specificity of retinyl ester hydrolase activity in retinal pigment epithelium. J Lipid Res. 1998 Mar; 39(3):604-12. PMID: 9548592.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Sena LP, Vanderjagt DJ, Rivera C, Tsin AT, Muhamadu I, Mahamadou O, Millson M, Pastuszyn A, Glew RH. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998; 52(1):17-30. PMID: 9839831.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    57. Mata NL, Mata JR, Tsin AT. Comparison of retinyl ester hydrolase activities in bovine liver and retinal pigment epithelium. J Lipid Res. 1996 Sep; 37(9):1947-52. PMID: 8895060.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Ziari SA, Mireles VL, Cantu CG, Cervantes M, Idrisa A, Bobsom D, Tsin AT, Glew RH. Serum vitamin A, vitamin E, and beta-carotene levels in preeclamptic women in northern nigeria. Am J Perinatol. 1996 Jul; 13(5):287-91. PMID: 8863947.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Tuitoek PJ, Ziari S, Tsin AT, Rajotte RV, Suh M, Basu TK. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats is associated with impaired metabolic availability of vitamin A (retinol). Br J Nutr. 1996 Apr; 75(4):615-22. PMID: 8672413.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    60. Bustamante JJ, Ziari S, Ramirez RD, Tsin AT. Retinyl ester hydrolase and the visual cycle in the chicken eye. Am J Physiol. 1995 Dec; 269(6 Pt 2):R1346-50. PMID: 8594936.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Tuitoek P, Lakey J, Rajotte R, Ziari S, Tsin A, Basu T. Effect of Insulin Treatment or Zinc Supplementation on Vitamin A Status in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1995; 19:165-173. PMID: 25635160.
    62. Sun JH, Reiter RJ, Hattori A, Yaga K, Herbert DC, Tsin AT. Phototransduction-related circadian changes in indoleamine metabolism in the chick pineal gland in vivo. J Pineal Res. 1993 Oct; 15(3):132-7. PMID: 8106958.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    64. Tsin AT, Griffin BW, Mata NL, Yu HS, Williams GW, Cridfr JY, Chandler ML. Vitamin A Homeostasis in the Diabetic Rat. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1993; 15(1):23-31. PMID: 25635159.
    65. Colston JT, Kumar P, Rael ED, Tsin AT, Valdes JJ, Chambers JP. Detection of sub-nanogram quantities of Mojave toxin via enzyme immunoassay with light addressable potentiometric detector. Biosens Bioelectron. 1993; 8(2):117-21. PMID: 8318195.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    66. Mata NL, Tsin AT, Chambers JP. Hydrolysis of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by retinal pigment epithelium microsomes. J Biol Chem. 1992 May 15; 267(14):9794-9. PMID: 1577814.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Tsin AT, Malsbury DW. Bile salt independent retinyl ester hydrolases in the bovine eye. Brain Res Bull. 1992 Jan; 28(1):121-5. PMID: 1540838.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    68. Sun JH, Reiter RJ, Mata NL, Tsin AT. Identification of 11-cis-retinal and demonstration of its light-induced isomerization in the chicken pineal gland. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Nov 25; 133(1):97-9. PMID: 1792003.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. Cammer TJ, Malsbury DW, Tsin AT. Vitamin A metabolism in the baboon eye. Brain Res Bull. 1990 Jun; 24(6):755-7. PMID: 2372694.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Sanders-Sanchez SR, Malsbury D, Tsin AT. Comparison of retinal pigment epithelium cell preparations from the bovine eye. Experientia. 1990 May 15; 46(5):498-500. PMID: 2347402.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    71. Chambers JP, Kumar P, Tsin AT, Valdes JJ. Partial characterization of a high affinity [Ca2+ + Mg2+]-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase from bovine retina. Exp Eye Res. 1990 Feb; 50(2):127-34. PMID: 2138089.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Tsin AT, Gentles SN, Castillo EA. Selective utilization of serum vitamin A for visual pigment synthesis. J Exp Biol. 1989 Mar; 142:207-14. PMID: 2723579.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. Phillips TS, Tsin AT, Reiter RJ, Malsbury DW. Retinoids in the bovine pineal gland. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Feb; 22(2):259-61. PMID: 2706537.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    74. Rodriguez KA, Tsin AT. Retinyl esters in the vertebrate neuroretina. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jan; 256(1 Pt 2):R255-8. PMID: 2783537.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    75. Tsin AT, Phillips TS, Reiter RJ. An evaluation on the level of retinoids in the bovine pineal body. Adv Pineal Res. 1989; 3:147-150. PMID: 26366033.
    76. Tsin AT, Chambers JP. Light and temperature affect retinyl ester hydrolase activity and visual pigment composition. Experientia. 1988 Jan 15; 44(1):20-1. PMID: 3350113.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. Liegner J, Taboada J, Tsin AT. Effects of Infrared Laser Radiation on the In Vitro Isomerization of All-Trans Retinal to 11-Cis Retinal. Lasers Life Sci. 1988; 2(2):103-112. PMID: 26321787.
    78. Tsin AT, Pedrozo-Fernandez HA, Gallas JM, Chambers JP. The fluorescence quantum yield of vitamin A2. Life Sci. 1988; 43(17):1379-84. PMID: 3185098.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    79. Tsin AT, Flores JM, Rodriguez KA. Visual pigments and retinoids in the Mongolian jird. Life Sci. 1987 Nov 02; 41(18):2085-90. PMID: 3669913.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. Vaughan MK, Chambers JP, Tsin AT, Vaughan GM, Reiter RJ. Pineal and retinal lysosomal enzyme rhythms. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 11; 417(2):321-6. PMID: 2958108.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Lai YL, Fong D, Lam KW, Wang HM, Tsin AT. Distribution of ascorbate in the retina, subretinal fluid and pigment epithelium. Curr Eye Res. 1986 Dec; 5(12):933-8. PMID: 3802896.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    82. Tsin AT, Morales ST, Flores JM. Distribution of retinoids and 3,4-didehydroretinoids in the goldfish. Can J Zool. 1986 Sep; 64(9):2066-2067. PMID: 25663710.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    83. Tsin AT. Competition between retinol and 3,4-didehydroretinol for esterification in crude pigment epithelial cell fractions. Experientia. 1986 Aug 15; 42(8):952-4. PMID: 3488918.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    84. Tsin AT, Chambers JP, Garcia MH, Flores JM. Decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity in protein-deficient rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Aug 14; 878(1):20-4. PMID: 3730411.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    85. Chambers JP, Tsin AT, Raymond NY, Aldape FG, Rodriguez KA. Effects of glycosylation inhibitors on the frog retina. Brain Res Bull. 1986 Aug; 17(2):259-63. PMID: 3094838.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    86. Bridges CD, Price J, Landers RA, Fong SL, Liou GI, Hong BS, Tsin AT. Interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) in subretinal fluid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1986 Jul; 27(7):1027-30. PMID: 3721782.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    87. Tsin AT. Enzymatic esterification of exogenous retinol and 3,4-didehydroretinol in the retinal pigment epithelium. J Exp Zool. 1986 Jun; 238(3):311-7. PMID: 2856858.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    88. Tsin AT, Flores JM. The in vivo regeneration of goldfish rhodopsin and porphyropsin. J Exp Biol. 1986 May; 122:269-75. PMID: 3723071.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    89. Tsin AT, Lam KW. Retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity in the bovine retina. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Feb 13; 134(3):1209-14. PMID: 3947364.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    90. Long EG, Tsin AT, Robinson BA. Comparison of the FeKal CON-Trate system with the formalin-ethyl acetate technique for detection of intestinal parasites. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Aug; 22(2):210-1. PMID: 4031035.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    91. Tsin AT, Santos FR. The 3, 4-didehydroretinal chromophore of goldfish porphyropsin. J Exp Zool. 1985 Aug; 235(2):181-6. PMID: 4056688.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    92. Lai YL, Tsin AT, Lam KW, Garcia JJ. Distribution of retinoids in different compartments of the posterior segment of the rabbit eye. Brain Res Bull. 1985 Aug; 15(2):143-7. PMID: 4041925.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Tsin AT, Alvarez RA, Fong SL, Bridges CD. Conversion of retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol in the tadpole. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1985; 81(2):415-21. PMID: 3874747.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    94. Tsin AT, Alvarez RA, Fong SL, Bridges CD. Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of retinyl and 3,4-didehydroretinyl compounds in tissue extracts of bullfrog tadpoles and goldfish. Vision Res. 1984; 24(12):1835-40. PMID: 6335937.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    95. Tsin AT, Beatty DD, Bridges CD, Alvarez R. Selective utilization of vitamins A1 and A2 by goldfish photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983 Sep; 24(9):1324-7. PMID: 6885318.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    96. Fong SL, Tsin AT, Bridges CD, Liou GI. Detergents for extraction of visual pigments: types, solubilization, and stability. Methods Enzymol. 1982; 81:133-40. PMID: 6980357.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. Tsin AT, Liebman PA, Beatty DD, Drzymala R. Rod and cone visual pigments in the goldfish. Vision Res. 1981; 21(6):943-6. PMID: 7314473.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Tsin AT, Beatty DD. Visual pigments and vitamins A in the adult bullfrog. Exp Eye Res. 1980 Feb; 30(2):143-53. PMID: 6968272.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    99. Tsin AT, Beatty DD. Scotopic visual pigment composition in the retinas and vitamins A in the pigment epithelium of the goldfish. Exp Eye Res. 1979 Jul; 29(1):15-26. PMID: 510424.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    100. Tsin AT. The visual pigment composition of rainbow trout. Vision Res. 1979; 19(2):131-5. PMID: 425331.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    101. Tsin AT. Steady-state visual pigment composition in rainbow trout. Vision Res. 1979; 19(11):1269-71. PMID: 550589.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    102. Tsin AT, Beatty DD. Goldfish rhodopsin: P499. Vision Res. 1978; 18(10):1453-5. PMID: 726293.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    103. Tsin AT, Beatty DD. Visual pigment changes in rainbow trout in response to temperature. Science. 1977 Mar 25; 195(4284):1358-60. PMID: 841335.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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