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Karl E. Klose
Title Professor
Faculty Rank
Degree Ph.D.
Institution University of Texas at San Antonio
Department Biology
Clusters Other
1 UTSA Cir
City San Antonio
State TX
Postal Code 78249
Telephone (210) 458-6140
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  Dr. Klose’s lab is interested in bacterial pathogenesis -- how bacteria cause disease. Dr. Klose has worked most extensively with Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, and is also researching Francisella tularensis, the bacterium that causes tularemia, or rabbit fever.
Cholera is found only where there are widespread problems with sanitation, so improving water and food supplies would eliminate the disease. Since that is unlikely to occur, a safe, cheap, effective vaccine is needed that would protect people. To design such a vaccine, the lab is addressing questions such as: How does V. cholerae know that it is in a human body and that is the place to express genes necessary for its survival and disease potential? What are the genetic factors responsible for V. cholerae to cause disease? How does this organism persist in aquatic environments, which lead to human infection?
Very little is known about F. tularensis or about tularemia. It is a highly virulent organism and can easily be aerosolized, so it is classified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as a Category A select agent with the highest potential to be used as a biological weapon. The lab is working to identify genetic factors responsible for F. tularensis to cause disease and to develop suitable vaccine candidates to protect against tularemia infection.

NIH Awarded Grants icon

  Research projects funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

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2019Development of a Multivalent Biodefense Vaccine5R21AI131037-02
20189th International Conference on Tularemia1R13FD006469-01
2018Development of a Multivalent Biodefense Vaccine1R21AI131037-01A1
2013Development of Genetic techniques in Chlamydia5R03AI097958-02
2012Development of Genetic techniques in Chlamydia1R03AI097958-01A1
2009Environmental Modulation of Toxt-Dependent Transcription2R56AI051333-07A1
2009Characterization of F. tularensis Virulence Genes5P01AI057986-05
2009Tularemia: Pathogenesis and Host Response5P01AI057986-05
2009Sigma 54 and Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis5R01AI043486-11
2008Characterization of F. tularensis Virulence Genes5P01AI057986-04
2008F. tularensis Virulence Protein Structure and Function5R21AI064487-02
2008Tularemia: Pathogenesis and Host Response5P01AI057986-04
2008Sigma 54 and Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis5R01AI043486-10
2007Characterization of F. tularensis Virulence Genes5P01AI057986-03
2007Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription5R01AI051333-06
2007Tularemia: Pathogenesis and Host Response5P01AI057986-03
2007Sigma 54 and Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis5R01AI043486-09
2007F. tularensis Virulence Protein Structure and Function1R21AI064487-01A2
2006Tularemia: Pathogenesis and Host Response5P01AI057986-02
2006Sigma 54 and Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis5R01AI043486-08
2006Characterization of F. tularensis Virulence Genes5P01AI057986-02
2006Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription5R01AI051333-05
2005Characterization of F. tularensis Virulence Genes1P01AI057986-01A2
2005Sigma 54 and Vibrio cholerae Pathogenesis2R01AI043486-07A1
2005Tularemia: Pathogenesis and Host Response1P01AI057986-01A2
2005Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription5R01AI051333-04
2004Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription5R01AI051333-02
2004An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents7R01AI050564-04
2004Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription7R01AI051333-03
2003An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents5R01AI050564-03
2003Environmental Modulation of ToxT-dependent Transcription1R01AI051333-01A1
2003An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents3R01AI050564-02S1
2002An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents5R01AI050564-02
2001An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents1R01AI050564-01

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1. Echazarreta MA, Kepple JL, Yen LH, Chen Y, Klose KE. A Critical Region in the FlaA Flagellin Facilitates Filament Formation of the Vibrio cholerae Flagellum. J Bacteriol. 2018 Mar 26.
2. Allué-Guardia A, Echazarreta M, Koenig SSK, Klose KE, Eppinger M. Closed Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba Strain A1552. Genome Announc. 2018 Mar 01; 6(9).
3. Nguyen JQ, Zogaj X, Adelani AA, Chu P, Yu JJ, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. Intratracheal Inoculation of Fischer 344 Rats with Francisella tularensis. J Vis Exp. 2017 09 30; (127).
4. Sarva ST, Waldo RH, Belland RJ, Klose KE. Comparative Transcriptional Analyses of Francisella tularensis and Francisella novicida. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0158631.
5. Cunningham AL, Guentzel MN, Yu JJ, Hung CY, Forsthuber TG, Navara CS, Yagita H, Williams IR, Klose KE, Eaves-Pyles TD, Arulanandam BP. M-Cells Contribute to the Entry of an Oral Vaccine but Are Not Essential for the Subsequent Induction of Protective Immunity against Francisella tularensis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153402.
6. Chu P, Cunningham AL, Yu JJ, Nguyen JQ, Barker JR, Lyons CR, Wilder J, Valderas M, Sherwood RL, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Oct; 10(10):e1004439.
7. Mazel D, Colwell R, Klose K, Oliver J, Crumlish M, McDougald D, Bland MJ, Austin B. VIBRIO 2014 meeting report. Res Microbiol. 2014 Dec; 165(10):857-64.
8. Weber GG, Kortmann J, Narberhaus F, Klose KE. RNA thermometer controls temperature-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 30; 111(39):14241-6.
9. Cunningham AL, Dang KM, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Heidner HW, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Enhancement of vaccine efficacy by expression of a TLR5 ligand in the defined live attenuated Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida strain U112?iglB::fljB. Vaccine. 2014 Sep 08; 32(40):5234-40.
10. Nguyen JQ, Gilley RP, Zogaj X, Rodriguez SA, Klose KE. Lipidation of the FPI protein IglE contributes to Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida intramacrophage replication and virulence. Pathog Dis. 2014 Oct; 72(1):10-8.
11. Jubair M, Atanasova KR, Rahman M, Klose KE, Yasmin M, Yilmaz O, Morris JG, Ali A. Vibrio cholerae persisted in microcosm for 700 days inhibits motility but promotes biofilm formation in nutrient-poor lake water microcosms. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92883.
12. Eppinger M, McNair K, Zogaj X, Dinsdale EA, Edwards RA, Klose KE. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. Genome Announc. 2013 Nov 07; 1(6).
13. Miner KD, Klose KE, Kurtz DM. An HD-GYP cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase with a non-heme diiron-carboxylate active site. Biochemistry. 2013 Aug 13; 52(32):5329-31.
14. Signarovitz AL, Ray HJ, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Mucosal immunization with live attenuated Francisella novicida U112?iglB protects against pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 rat model. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47639.
15. Schaller RA, Ali SK, Klose KE, Kurtz DM. A bacterial hemerythrin domain regulates the activity of a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase. Biochemistry. 2012 Oct 30; 51(43):8563-70.
16. Zogaj X, Wyatt GC, Klose KE. Cyclic di-GMP stimulates biofilm formation and inhibits virulence of Francisella novicida. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4239-47.
17. Arulanandam BP, Chetty SL, Yu JJ, Leonard S, Klose K, Seshu J, Cap A, Valdes JJ, Chambers JP. Francisella DnaK inhibits tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 26; 287(44):37185-94.
18. Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Navara CS, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Chambers JP, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cell TLR2 signaling is crucial for effective killing of Francisella tularensis. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 01; 188(11):5604-11.
19. Sanapala S, Yu JJ, Murthy AK, Li W, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Perforin- and granzyme-mediated cytotoxic effector functions are essential for protection against Francisella tularensis following vaccination by the defined F. tularensis subsp. novicida ?fopC vaccine strain. Infect Immun. 2012 Jun; 80(6):2177-85.
20. Hankins JV, Madsen JA, Giles DK, Childers BM, Klose KE, Brodbelt JS, Trent MS. Elucidation of a novel Vibrio cholerae lipid A secondary hydroxy-acyltransferase and its role in innate immune recognition. Mol Microbiol. 2011 Sep; 81(5):1313-29.
21. Childers BM, Cao X, Weber GG, Demeler B, Hart PJ, Klose KE. N-terminal residues of the Vibrio cholerae virulence regulatory protein ToxT involved in dimerization and modulation by fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12; 286(32):28644-55.
22. Chu P, Rodriguez AR, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. Tryptophan prototrophy contributes to Francisella tularensis evasion of gamma interferon-mediated host defense. Infect Immun. 2011 Jun; 79(6):2356-61.
23. Nallaparaju KC, Yu JJ, Rodriguez SA, Zogaj X, Manam S, Guentzel MN, Seshu J, Murthy AK, Chambers JP, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Evasion of IFN-? signaling by Francisella novicida is dependent upon Francisella outer membrane protein C. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 31; 6(3):e18201.
24. Murthy AK, Chaganty BK, Troutman T, Guentzel MN, Yu JJ, Ali SK, Lauriano CM, Chambers JP, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Mannose-containing oligosaccharides of non-specific human secretory immunoglobulin A mediate inhibition of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 09; 6(2):e16847.
25. Weber GG, Klose KE. The complexity of ToxT-dependent transcription in Vibrio cholerae. Indian J Med Res. 2011 Feb; 133:201-6.
26. Zogaj X, Klose KE. Genetic manipulation of francisella tularensis. Front Microbiol. 2010; 1:142.
27. Karna SL, Zogaj X, Barker JR, Seshu J, Dove SL, Klose KE. A bacterial two-hybrid system that utilizes Gateway cloning for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions. Biotechniques. 2010 Nov; 49(5):831-3.
28. Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Chambers JP, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cell/IL-4 control of Francisella tularensis replication and host cell death is associated with increased ATP production and phagosomal acidification. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 Mar; 4(2):217-26.
29. Thompson FL, Thompson CC, Vicente AC, Klose KE. Vibrio2009: the third international conference on the biology of Vibrios. Mol Microbiol. 2010 Sep; 77(5):1065-71.
30. Fong JC, Syed KA, Klose KE, Yildiz FH. Role of Vibrio polysaccharide (vps) genes in VPS production, biofilm formation and Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. Microbiology. 2010 Sep; 156(Pt 9):2757-69.
31. Ray HJ, Chu P, Wu TH, Lyons CR, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. The Fischer 344 rat reflects human susceptibility to francisella pulmonary challenge and provides a new platform for virulence and protection studies. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 01; 5(4):e9952.
32. Yu JJ, Goluguri T, Guentzel MN, Chambers JP, Murthy AK, Klose KE, Forsthuber TG, Arulanandam BP. Francisella tularensis T-cell antigen identification using humanized HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Feb; 17(2):215-22.
33. Barker JR, Chong A, Wehrly TD, Yu JJ, Rodriguez SA, Liu J, Celli J, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. The Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island encodes a secretion system that is required for phagosome escape and virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2009 Dec; 74(6):1459-70.
34. Chaparro AP, Ali SK, Klose KE. The ToxT-dependent methyl-accepting chemoreceptors AcfB and TcpI contribute to Vibrio cholerae intestinal colonization. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010 Jan; 302(2):99-105.
35. Moisi M, Jenul C, Butler SM, New A, Tutz S, Reidl J, Klose KE, Camilli A, Schild S. A novel regulatory protein involved in motility of Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 2009 Nov; 191(22):7027-38.
36. Syed KA, Beyhan S, Correa N, Queen J, Liu J, Peng F, Satchell KJ, Yildiz F, Klose KE. The Vibrio cholerae flagellar regulatory hierarchy controls expression of virulence factors. J Bacteriol. 2009 Nov; 191(21):6555-70.
37. Cong Y, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Berton MT, Seshu J, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Vaccination with a defined Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida pathogenicity island mutant (DeltaiglB) induces protective immunity against homotypic and heterotypic challenge. Vaccine. 2009 Sep 18; 27(41):5554-61.
38. Rodriguez SA, Davis G, Klose KE. Targeted gene disruption in Francisella tularensis by group II introns. Methods. 2009 Nov; 49(3):270-4.
39. Ray HJ, Cong Y, Murthy AK, Selby DM, Klose KE, Barker JR, Guentzel MN, Arulanandam BP. Oral live vaccine strain-induced protective immunity against pulmonary Francisella tularensis challenge is mediated by CD4+ T cells and antibodies, including immunoglobulin A. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Apr; 16(4):444-52.
40. Sorci L, Martynowski D, Rodionov DA, Eyobo Y, Zogaj X, Klose KE, Nikolaev EV, Magni G, Zhang H, Osterman AL. Nicotinamide mononucleotide synthetase is the key enzyme for an alternative route of NAD biosynthesis in Francisella tularensis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 03; 106(9):3083-8.
41. Chatterjee S, Ghosh K, Raychoudhuri A, Chowdhury G, Bhattacharya MK, Mukhopadhyay AK, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya SK, Klose KE, Nandy RK. Incidence, virulence factors, and clonality among clinical strains of non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Apr; 47(4):1087-95.
42. Chong A, Wehrly TD, Nair V, Fischer ER, Barker JR, Klose KE, Celli J. The early phagosomal stage of Francisella tularensis determines optimal phagosomal escape and Francisella pathogenicity island protein expression. Infect Immun. 2008 Dec; 76(12):5488-99.
43. Zogaj X, Chakraborty S, Liu J, Thanassi DG, Klose KE. Characterization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida type IV pilus. Microbiology. 2008 Jul; 154(Pt 7):2139-50.
44. Ketavarapu JM, Rodriguez AR, Yu JJ, Cong Y, Murthy AK, Forsthuber TG, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Berton MT, Arulanandam BP. Mast cells inhibit intramacrophage Francisella tularensis replication via contact and secreted products including IL-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 08; 105(27):9313-8.
45. Mohapatra NP, Soni S, Reilly TJ, Liu J, Klose KE, Gunn JS. Combined deletion of four Francisella novicida acid phosphatases attenuates virulence and macrophage vacuolar escape. Infect Immun. 2008 Aug; 76(8):3690-9.
46. Powell HJ, Cong Y, Yu JJ, Guentzel MN, Berton MT, Klose KE, Murthy AK, Arulanandam BP. CD4+ T cells are required during priming but not the effector phase of antibody-mediated IFN-gamma-dependent protective immunity against pulmonary Francisella novicida infection. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008 Aug-Sep; 86(6):515-22.
47. Rodriguez SA, Yu JJ, Davis G, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. Targeted inactivation of francisella tularensis genes by group II introns. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 May; 74(9):2619-26.
48. Yu JJ, Raulie EK, Murthy AK, Guentzel MN, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. The presence of infectious extracellular Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida in murine plasma after pulmonary challenge. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Apr; 27(4):323-5.
49. Morris DC, Peng F, Barker JR, Klose KE. Lipidation of an FlrC-dependent protein is required for enhanced intestinal colonization by Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 2008 Jan; 190(1):231-9.
50. Liu J, Zogaj X, Barker JR, Klose KE. Construction of targeted insertion mutations in Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida. Biotechniques. 2007 Oct; 43(4):487-90, 492.
51. Waldo RH, Cummings ED, Sarva ST, Brown JM, Lauriano CM, Rose LA, Belland RJ, Klose KE, Hilliard GM. Proteome cataloging and relative quantification of Francisella tularensis tularensis strain Schu4 in 2D PAGE using preparative isoelectric focusing. J Proteome Res. 2007 Sep; 6(9):3484-90.
52. Childers BM, Klose KE. Regulation of virulence in Vibrio cholerae: the ToxR regulon. Future Microbiol. 2007 Jun; 2(3):335-44.
53. Santic M, Molmeret M, Barker JR, Klose KE, Dekanic A, Doric M, Abu Kwaik Y. A Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island protein essential for bacterial proliferation within the host cell cytosol. Cell Microbiol. 2007 Oct; 9(10):2391-403.
54. Barker JR, Klose KE. Molecular and genetic basis of pathogenesis in Francisella tularensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jun; 1105:138-59.
55. Childers BM, Weber GG, Prouty MG, Castaneda MM, Peng F, Klose KE. Identification of residues critical for the function of the Vibrio cholerae virulence regulator ToxT by scanning alanine mutagenesis. J Mol Biol. 2007 Apr 13; 367(5):1413-30.
56. Xicohtencatl-Cortés J, Lyons S, Chaparro AP, Hernández DR, Saldaña Z, Ledesma MA, Rendón MA, Gewirtz AT, Klose KE, Girón JA. Identification of proinflammatory flagellin proteins in supernatants of Vibrio cholerae O1 by proteomics analysis. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Dec; 5(12):2374-83.
57. Thompson FL, Klose KE. Vibrio2005: the First International Conference on the Biology of Vibrios. J Bacteriol. 2006 Jul; 188(13):4592-6.
58. Pammit MA, Raulie EK, Lauriano CM, Klose KE, Arulanandam BP. Intranasal vaccination with a defined attenuated Francisella novicida strain induces gamma interferon-dependent antibody-mediated protection against tularemia. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr; 74(4):2063-71.
59. Klose KE. Increased chatter: cyclic dipeptides as molecules of chemical communication in Vibrio spp. J Bacteriol. 2006 Mar; 188(6):2025-6.
60. Santic M, Molmeret M, Klose KE, Abu Kwaik Y. Francisella tularensis travels a novel, twisted road within macrophages. Trends Microbiol. 2006 Jan; 14(1):37-44.
61. Prouty MG, Osorio CR, Klose KE. Characterization of functional domains of the Vibrio cholerae virulence regulator ToxT. Mol Microbiol. 2005 Nov; 58(4):1143-56.
62. Correa NE, Peng F, Klose KE. Roles of the regulatory proteins FlhF and FlhG in the Vibrio cholerae flagellar transcription hierarchy. J Bacteriol. 2005 Sep; 187(18):6324-32.
63. Schild S, Lamprecht AK, Fourestier C, Lauriano CM, Klose KE, Reidl J. Characterizing lipopolysaccharide and core lipid A mutant O1 and O139 Vibrio cholerae strains for adherence properties on mucus-producing cell line HT29-Rev MTX and virulence in mice. Int J Med Microbiol. 2005 Aug; 295(4):243-51.
64. Santic M, Molmeret M, Klose KE, Jones S, Kwaik YA. The Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island protein IglC and its regulator MglA are essential for modulating phagosome biogenesis and subsequent bacterial escape into the cytoplasm. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Jul; 7(7):969-79.
65. Correa NE, Klose KE. Characterization of enhancer binding by the Vibrio cholerae flagellar regulatory protein FlrC. J Bacteriol. 2005 May; 187(9):3158-70.
66. Kern WV, Klose K, Jellen-Ritter AS, Oethinger M, Bohnert J, Kern P, Reuter S, von Baum H, Marre R. Fluoroquinolone resistance of Escherichia coli at a cancer center: epidemiologic evolution and effects of discontinuing prophylactic fluoroquinolone use in neutropenic patients with leukemia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005 Feb; 24(2):111-8.
67. Pammit MA, Budhavarapu VN, Raulie EK, Klose KE, Teale JM, Arulanandam BP. Intranasal interleukin-12 treatment promotes antimicrobial clearance and survival in pulmonary Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec; 48(12):4513-9.
68. Nano FE, Zhang N, Cowley SC, Klose KE, Cheung KK, Roberts MJ, Ludu JS, Letendre GW, Meierovics AI, Stephens G, Elkins KL. A Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island required for intramacrophage growth. J Bacteriol. 2004 Oct; 186(19):6430-6.
69. Lauriano CM, Ghosh C, Correa NE, Klose KE. The sodium-driven flagellar motor controls exopolysaccharide expression in Vibrio cholerae. J Bacteriol. 2004 Aug; 186(15):4864-74.
70. Correa NE, Barker JR, Klose KE. The Vibrio cholerae FlgM homologue is an anti-sigma28 factor that is secreted through the sheathed polar flagellum. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul; 186(14):4613-9.
71. Lauriano CM, Barker JR, Yoon SS, Nano FE, Arulanandam BP, Hassett DJ, Klose KE. MglA regulates transcription of virulence factors necessary for Francisella tularensis intraamoebae and intramacrophage survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 23; 101(12):4246-9.
72. Lauriano CM, Barker JR, Nano FE, Arulanandam BP, Klose KE. Allelic exchange in Francisella tularensis using PCR products. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003 Dec 12; 229(2):195-202.
73. Hassett DJ, Limbach PA, Hennigan RF, Klose KE, Hancock RE, Platt MD, Hunt DF. Bacterial biofilms of importance to medicine and bioterrorism: proteomic techniques to identify novel vaccine components and drug targets. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2003 Dec; 3(8):1201-7.
74. Prouty MG, Correa NE, Barker LP, Jagadeeswaran P, Klose KE. Zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model for mycobacterial pathogenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003 Aug 29; 225(2):177-82.
75. Simonet VC, Baslé A, Klose KE, Delcour AH. The Vibrio cholerae porins OmpU and OmpT have distinct channel properties. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 09; 278(19):17539-45.
76. Nesper J, Schild S, Lauriano CM, Kraiss A, Klose KE, Reidl J. Role of Vibrio cholerae O139 surface polysaccharides in intestinal colonization. Infect Immun. 2002 Nov; 70(11):5990-6.